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SAKARIFIKASI SERAT TANDAN KOSONG DAN PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT SETELAH PRETREATMENT MENGGUNAKAN KULTUR CAMPURAN JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Trametes versicolor Abimanyu, Haznan; Hanafi, Ahmad; Aristiawan, Yosi; Anita, Sita Heris; Risanto, Lucky; Hermiati, Euis
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 32, No 2 (2014): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

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Abstract

Penggunaan kultur campuran jamur pelapuk putih pada proses pretreatment bahan lignoselulosa belum banyak diteliti. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan kultur  Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Trametes versicolor pada proses pretreatment serat tandan kosong dan pelepah kelapa sawit terhadap hasil sakarifikasinya. Inokulum P. Chrysosporium dan T. versicolor dituangkan ke dalam sampel substrat serat tandan kosong dan pelepah kelapa sawit (40-60 mesh) yang telah disterilkan, masing-masing sebanyak 5% (w/v), sehingga total inokulum yang ditambahkan ke dalam kedua macam substrat masing-masing 10% (w/v). Sampel diinkubasikan pada suhu ±27°C selama 4 minggu. Sebagian dari contoh diambil dan lalu diperiksa setelah masa inkubasi 1, 2, 3, dan 4 minggu. Sakarifikasi dilakukan menggunakan enzim selulase sebanyak 20 FPU per g biomassa dan β-glukosidase dalam shaking waterbath pada suhu 50°C selama 48 jam. Analisis gula pereduksi, glukosa dan xilosa dilakukan terhadap hasil sakarifikasi. Rendemen gula pereduksi, konsentrasi glukosa dan xilosa tertinggi dari tandan kosong kelapa sawit. diperoleh dari sakarifikasi serat dengan pretreatment selama 4 minggu, yaitu masing-masing 13,08%, 0,86 mg/g dan 0,13 mg/g, sedangkan rendemen gula pereduksi, konsentrasi glukosa dan xilosa tertinggi dari pelepah kelapa sawit didapatkan dari sakarifikasi substrat dengan pretreatment selama 2 minggu, yaitu masing-masing 8,98%, 0,92 mg/g dan 0,23 mg/g.
Properties of Lignin from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch and Its Application for Plywood Adhesive Sudiyani, Yanni; Hermiati, Euis; Risanto, Lucky
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (212.229 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v18i2.397

Abstract

Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a potential biopolymer for wood adhesive. The aims of this study were to characterize lignin isolated from the black liquor of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber pretreated with steam explosion in alkaline conditions and to examine the bond quality of aqueous polymer isocyanate (API) adhesive prepared from lignin, natural rubber latex (NRL), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as base polymers with isocyanate crosslinkers. Lignin was precipitated from the black liquor by adding hydrochloric acid; then the precipitate was separated by filtration, thoroughly washed with water up to pH 2 and pH 5, and dried. The isolated lignin was characterized by ultimate analysis, UV spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Three-layer plywood samples were prepared, and the bond strengths of the plywood samples were determined in dry conditions and after cyclic boiling. The lignin isolates with different pH values did not have significantly different chemical and thermal properties. Both lignin isolates had similar C, H, and O contents, identical functional groups in the FTIR spectra, similar absorption in the UV spectra, and high decomposition temperatures. The base polymers composition that could produce API adhesive for exterior applications was NRL/PVA/lignin (4/4/2). The use of more lignin in the adhesive formulation decreased the bond strength of the plywood.
Biological Pretreatment of Oil Palm Frond Fiber Using White-Rot Fungi for Enzymatic Saccharification Hermiati, Euis; Anita, Sita; Risanto, Lucky; Styarini, Dyah; Sudiyani, Yanni; Hanafi, Achmad; Abimanyu, Haznan
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 17, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (150.583 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v17i1.260

Abstract

Oil palm frond is one type of lignocellulosic biomass abundantly and daily available in Indonesia. It contains cellulose which can be converted to glucose, and further processed to produce different kinds of value –added products. The aim of this research is to study the effects of biological pretreatment of oil palm frond (OPF) fiber using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor on the enzymatic saccharification of the biomass. The OPF fiber (40-60 mesh sizes) was inoculated with cultures of the two fungi and incubated at 27 °C for 4 weeks. The samples were taken after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation. Chemical components of the biomass after pretreatment were analyzed. The saccharification of the pretreated samples using cellulase and β-glucosidase was performed in a water bath shaker at 50 °C for 48 hours. The concentration of reducing sugar increased with increasing of incubation time, either in those pretreated with culture of P. chrysosporium or with T. versicolor. Pretreatment of OPF fiber using single culture of T. versicolor for 4 weeks gave the highest reducing sugar yield (12.61% of dry biomass).
CENTRAL KALIMANTAN’S FAST GROWING SPECIES: SUITABILITY FOR PULP AND PAPER Adi, Danang Sudarwoko; Wahyuni, Ika; Risanto, Lucky; Rulliaty, Sri; Hermiati, Euis; Dwianto, Wahyu; Watanabe, Takashi
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 2, No 1 (2015): Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (624.734 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2015.2.1.%p

Abstract

Fast growing wood species could be promising to fulfill the gap between wood demand and supply. Due to their low quality, the utilization of fast growing wood species has been limited to pulp and paper. Our previous study on the fiber characteristic and density of the 30 unutilized fast growing wood species from PT Sari Bumi Kusuma, Central Kalimantan, showed that there were five species which could be promising as pulp and paper material. These wood species have fiber lengths of more than 2200 µm. This research was conducted to get information another property of the five woods to more discover their potential utilization, especially for pulp and paper material. The wood species investigated were Endospermum diadenum, Dillenia sp., Adinandra dumosa, Adinandra sp., and Nauclea junghuhnii. The results showed that these five species have a long of fiber length, which are classified in Class I, low to medium density, fiber derived value which the total score felt in the class I. The chemical compositions showed that extractive, holocelullose, α-cellulose, and lignin contents were 1.74-4.12%, 62.73-73.83%, 37.24-46.97%, 29.68-38.92%, respectively. Based on fiber characteristic, density, and chemical properties, these five species could be used as an alternative raw material for pulp and paper industries. 
Application of Microwave Heating in Biomass Hydrolysis and Pretreatment for Ethanol Production Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Hermiati, Euis; Sunarti, Ttiti C; Suparno, Ono; Prasetya, Bambang
ANNALES BOGORIENSES Vol 14, No 1 (2010): Annales Bogorienses
Publisher : Research Center for Biotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (505.18 KB) | DOI: 10.1234/33

Abstract

Recently, due to depletion of  fossil derived energy stock in the world, there are growing  interests in utilizing biomass sources of bioethanol. There are basically two types of biomass that are usually used or converted to ethanol, starchy and lignocellulosic biomass. The conversion of starchy and lignocellulosic materials are widely explored,  however,  there  are  still  some  drawbacks,  such  as  high  enzyme  cost  and  intensive  energy  needed. Therefore, lower cost as well as energy and time efficient process technology in biomass conversion to ethanol  is important in enhancing the use of biomass to substitute fossil fuel. Microwave heating offers some advantages to overcome these drawbacks, especially due to its quick heat transfer and its heating selectivity. In conventional heating the  heat  was  transferred  through  conduction  or  convection  process  which  took  longer  time.  Thus,  by using microwave, degradation of starchy and lignocellulosic biomass could be completed in shorter time than by using conventional heating method. The roles of microwave heating in the degradation of biomass, especially starchy and lignocellulosic biomass  and its relation to the hydrolysis and pretreatment of that particular biomass for ethanol production are reviewed and discussed.   Keywords: biomass, pretreatment, ethanol, microwave
Optimizing the Synthesis of Lignin Derivatives from Acacia mangium to Improve the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Kraft Pulp Sorghum Bagasse Fatriasari, Widya; Hamzah, Fajar Nur; Pratomo, Bagas Ikhasan; Fajriutami, Triyani; Ermawar, Riksfardini Annisa; Falah, Faizatul; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Ghozali, Muhammad; Iswanto, Apri Heri; Hermiati, Euis; Winarni, Ina
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 9, No 2 (2020): July 2020
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.9.2.227-235

Abstract

The present study is aimed at optimizing the synthesis of Amphipilic lignin derivatives (A-LD) from the isolated lignin of A.mangium black liquor (BL), using the one and two step acid isolation method, and commercial lignin (LS) was used as comparison. The experimental design was conducted using Taguchi method, which consisted of four parameters and two level factors, with reference to the matrix orthogonal array, L8, including temperature, reaction time, amount of polyethylene glycol diglycidylethers (PEGDE) and Kraft lignin (KL). Furthermore, the kraft pulp of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was used as substrate in the enzymatic hydrolysis (NREL method), with addition of A-LD, whose functional group and surface tension were then characterised using ATR-FTIR and surface tension equipment. Conversely, an improvement in the reducing sugar yield (RSY) compared to the control was observed after adding various A-LDs to the substrate during enzymatic hydrolysis. This product was more prospective for L2S than others products under milder circumstances, due to the fact that it possesses the lowest surface tension. Also, Taguchi analysis demonstrated the treatment at 60 °C for 1 h with 3.0 g and 1.0 g of PEDGE and lignin, respectively as the optimum condition, while the amount of lignin present was included as a factor with the propensity to significantly affect A-LD L1S and LS. Therefore, it was established that the A-LDs from A. mangium kraft lignin require milder synthesis conditions, compared to other existing methods and despite the differences in optimum experimental condition for L2S and LS, the functional groups in the IR spectra possessed very identical characteristics. 
CHARACTERIZATION AND MICROWAVE-ASSISTED HYDROLYSIS OF SAGO STARCH TO PRODUCE MALTODEXTRIN Fajriutami, Triyani; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Hermiati, Euis
Teknologi Indonesia Vol 37, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : LIPI Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (16.051 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jti.v37i2.220

Abstract

Sago (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) starch is one of potential sources of starch in Indonesia; however, it has not been widely used as industrial raw material for modified starch, such as maltodextrin, which has higher addedvalue than the native sago starch. The aim of this study was to develop the processing technology of maltodextrin production from sago starch using microwave irradiation. The addition of activated carbon had a significant effect on the sugar produced in the microwave-assisted hydrolysis. The longer the duration of microwave irradiation the higher the total dissolved solids in the filtrate, and the lower the pH values. The increase of the microwave power level from 550 to 770 W significantly affected sugar content of the hydrolysates. Suitable Dextrose Equivalent (DE) value of maltodextrin (?20) can be obtained after hydrolysis for 10 to 12 minutes at the power level of 550 W or 6 to 8 minutes at the power level of 770 W.
PRETREATMENT TRAMETES VERSICOLOR DAN PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS PADA BAGAS UNTUK PRODUKSI BIOETANOL Anita, Sita Heris; Fajriutami, Triyani; Fitria, -; Ermawar, Riksfardini Annisa; Yuli Yanto, Dede Heri; Hermiati, Euis
Teknologi Indonesia Vol 34 (2011)
Publisher : LIPI Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (16.048 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jti.v34iKhusus.37

Abstract

Single and mix cultures of white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus has been applied onto sugarcane bagasse as a pretreatment process. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of single and mix cultures of white-rot fungi in lignin degradation while maintaining minimum loss of ?-cellulose of sugarcane bagasse. Single and mix cultures of white-rot fungi T. versicolor and P. ostreatus have been inoculated onto sugarcane bagasse which varied in 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/v) with inoculum comparison 1:1. After 4-week incubation, analysis was carried out on the content of extractives, lignin, ?-cellulose and hemicellulose. The result showed that 4-week incubation of single culture of P. ostreatus was more advantageous as a pretreatment method for sugarcane bagasse, with considerable number of lignin degradation (17,95%) and minimum loss of cellulose (11,00%) and hemicelluloses (5,75%). As with mix cultures, incubation period should have been reduced to prevent significant loss of cellulose and hemicellulose. Furthermore, with shorter incubation period, this biological pretreatment process will be more interesting and feasible for the industry.
Optimization of Xylose Production from Sugarcane Trash by Microwave-Maleic Acid Hydrolysis Hermiati, Euis; Oktaviani, Maulida; Ermawar, Riksfardini Annisa; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Kholida, Lutfi Nia; Thontowi, Ahmad; Mardiana, Siti; Watanabe, Takashi
Reaktor Volume 20 No.2 June 2020
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (528.661 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.20.2.81-88

Abstract

Sugarcane trash contains significant amount of xylan that could be hydrolysed to xylose. The xylose could be further fermented to produce xylitol, a sugar alcohol that has low calories and does not cause carries of teeth. In this study we optimized the production of xylose from sugarcane trash by microwave-assisted maleic acid hydrolysis using response surface methodology (RSM). The factors optimized were acid concentration, time, and temperature. The xylose yield based on the weight of initial biomass was determined and it served as a response variable. Results show that acid concentration and interaction between time and temperature had significant effect on xylose yield. The quadratic regression model generated from the optimization was fit and can be used to predict the xylose yield after hydrolysis with various combinations of acid concentration, time, and temperature. The optimum condition for xylose production from sugarcane trash was using maleic acid of 1.52%, and heating at 176 °C for 6.8 min. At this condition the yield of xylose was 24.3% per initial biomass or 0.243 g/ g biomass.Keywords: maleic acid; microwave heating; response surface methodology; sugarcane trash, xylose
Pretreatment of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) at Bench-Scale High Temperature-Pressure Steam Reactor for Enhancement of Enzymatic Saccharification Sari, Fahriya Puspita; Falah, Faizatul; Anita, Sita Heris; Ramadhan, Kharisma Panji; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Fatriasari, Widya; Hermiati, Euis
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 10, No 2 (2021): May 2021
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.2021.32343

Abstract

Upscaling of biomass pretreatment from laboratory scale to a bench-scale reactor is one of the important steps in the application of the pretreatment for pilot or commercial scale. This study reports the optimization of pretreatment conditions, namely reaction temperature and time, by one factor at a time (OFAT) method for the enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). OPEFB was pretreated using high temperature-pressure steam reactor with different reaction temperatures (160, 170, 180, 190, 200 °C) and times (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 min). The effectiveness of the pretreatment was determined based on chemical compositions of raw OPEFB and OPEFB pulp and sugar production from enzymatic saccharification of the OPEFB pulp.  Solubilized components from OPEFB, such as glucose, xylose, formic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and furfural in the hydrolysate that generated during steam pretreatment were also determined. Pretreatment at 180°C for 20 min provides the highest sugar yields (97.30% of glucose yield per initial cellulose and 88.86% of xylose yield per initial hemicellulose). At the optimum condition, 34.9% of lignin and 30.75% of hemicellulose are successfully removed from the OPEFB and resulted in 3.43 delignification selectivity. The relationship between severity factor and by-products generated and the sugars obtained after enzymatic saccharification are discussed. The pulp of OPEFB at the optimum condition was also characterized for its morphological characteristic by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and crystallinity by X-ray diffractometry (XRD).  These pulp characteristics are then compared with those of the raw OPEFB. The steam pretreatment causes some fiber disruptions with more defined and opened structures and increases the crystallinity index (CrI) by 2.9% compared to the raw OPEFB.