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SAKARIFIKASI SERAT TANDAN KOSONG DAN PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT SETELAH PRETREATMENT MENGGUNAKAN KULTUR CAMPURAN JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Trametes versicolor Abimanyu, Haznan; Hanafi, Ahmad; Aristiawan, Yosi; Anita, Sita Heris; Risanto, Lucky; Hermiati, Euis
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 32, No 2 (2014): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

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Abstract

Penggunaan kultur campuran jamur pelapuk putih pada proses pretreatment bahan lignoselulosa belum banyak diteliti. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan kultur  Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Trametes versicolor pada proses pretreatment serat tandan kosong dan pelepah kelapa sawit terhadap hasil sakarifikasinya. Inokulum P. Chrysosporium dan T. versicolor dituangkan ke dalam sampel substrat serat tandan kosong dan pelepah kelapa sawit (40-60 mesh) yang telah disterilkan, masing-masing sebanyak 5% (w/v), sehingga total inokulum yang ditambahkan ke dalam kedua macam substrat masing-masing 10% (w/v). Sampel diinkubasikan pada suhu ±27°C selama 4 minggu. Sebagian dari contoh diambil dan lalu diperiksa setelah masa inkubasi 1, 2, 3, dan 4 minggu. Sakarifikasi dilakukan menggunakan enzim selulase sebanyak 20 FPU per g biomassa dan β-glukosidase dalam shaking waterbath pada suhu 50°C selama 48 jam. Analisis gula pereduksi, glukosa dan xilosa dilakukan terhadap hasil sakarifikasi. Rendemen gula pereduksi, konsentrasi glukosa dan xilosa tertinggi dari tandan kosong kelapa sawit. diperoleh dari sakarifikasi serat dengan pretreatment selama 4 minggu, yaitu masing-masing 13,08%, 0,86 mg/g dan 0,13 mg/g, sedangkan rendemen gula pereduksi, konsentrasi glukosa dan xilosa tertinggi dari pelepah kelapa sawit didapatkan dari sakarifikasi substrat dengan pretreatment selama 2 minggu, yaitu masing-masing 8,98%, 0,92 mg/g dan 0,23 mg/g.
FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper) BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER Damayanti, Ratih; Fatriasari, Widya; Anita, Sita Heris
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 10, No 2 (2013): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung) bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper) using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control). Fresh and barkless large (betung) bamboo chips of 2 years old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO); P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC); P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV); and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO).After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I) based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report) requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for 45 days produced the best fiber dimension and its derived value properties. The fungi hypae colonized on the surface area of  bamboo followed by mycelium penetration into substrate (bamboo-inner structure). The partial degradation caused by delignification indicatively attributed to the fungi activity was shown in the macroscopic images.
PEMANFAATAN LIGNIN HASIL ISOLASI DARI LINDI HITAM PROSES BIOPULPING BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper) SEBAGAI MEDIA SELEKTIF JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH Anita, Sita Heris; Yuli Yanto, Dede Heri; Fatriasari, Widya
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 29, No 4 (2011): JURNAL PENELITIAN HASIL HUTAN
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

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Abstract

Lindi hitam merupakan limbah industri pulp yang belum termanfaatkan dengan baik. Pemanfaatan lignin dari lindi hitam selama ini biasanya hanya digunakan sebagai perekat. Dalam bidang mikrobiologi lignin dari lindi hitam dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai media selektif untuk isolasi jamur pelapuk putih. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui manfaat lignin hasil isolasi proses biopulping sebagai media selektif untuk jamur pelapuk putih. Lignin dari lindi hitam hasil biopulping bambu, dengan proses pemasakan soda dan kraft, diisolasi dengan penambahan asam. Padatan lignin kemudian dimurnikan menggunakan larutan dioksan dan ditimbang berat serta dianalisa secara kualitatif menggunakan spektrofotometer. Lignin hasil isolasi ditambahkan pada media agar untuk uji selektifitas jamur pelapuk putih Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Trametes versicolor. Pretreatment bambu pada 30 hari inkubasi menghasilkan lignin yang lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan inkubasi selama 45 hari. Padatan lignin yang diperoleh dari hasil biopulping proses kraft juga lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan pada proses soda. Pengujian selektifitas jamur pada media alkali lignin menunjukkan bahwa fungi T. versicolor mensekresi enzim lebih cepat daripada P. chrysosporium.
PEMANFAATAN LIGNIN HASIL ISOLASI DARI LINDI HITAM PROSES BIOPULPING BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper) SEBAGAI MEDIA SELEKTIF JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH Fatriasari, Widya; Yuli Yanto, Dede Heri; Anita, Sita Heris
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 29, No 4 (2011): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2406.752 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2011.29.4.312-321

Abstract

Lindi hitam merupakan limbah industri pulp yang belum termanfaatkan dengan baik. Pemanfaatan lignin dari lindi hitam selama ini biasanya hanya digunakan sebagai perekat. Dalam bidang mikrobiologi lignin dari lindi hitam dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai media selektif untuk isolasi jamur pelapuk putih. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui manfaat lignin hasil isolasi proses biopulping sebagai media selektif untuk jamur pelapuk putih. Lignin dari lindi hitam hasil biopulping bambu, dengan proses pemasakan soda dan kraft, diisolasi dengan penambahan asam. Padatan lignin kemudian dimurnikan menggunakan larutan dioksan dan ditimbang berat serta dianalisa secara kualitatif menggunakan spektrofotometer. Lignin hasil isolasi ditambahkan pada media agar untuk uji selektifitas jamur pelapuk putih Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Trametes versicolor. Pretreatment bambu pada 30 hari inkubasi menghasilkan lignin yang lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan inkubasi selama 45 hari. Padatan lignin yang diperoleh dari hasil biopulping proses kraft juga lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan pada proses soda. Pengujian selektifitas jamur pada media alkali lignin menunjukkan bahwa fungi T. versicolor mensekresi enzim lebih cepat daripada P. chrysosporium.
FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper) BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER Fatriasari, Widya; Damayanti, Ratih; Anita, Sita Heris
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 10, No 2 (2013): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2013.10.2.89-99

Abstract

Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung) bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper) using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control). Fresh and barkless large (betung) bamboo chips of 2 years old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO); P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC); P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV); and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO).After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I) based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report) requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for 45 days produced the best fiber dimension and its derived value properties. The fungi hypae colonized on the surface area of  bamboo followed by mycelium penetration into substrate (bamboo-inner structure). The partial degradation caused by delignification indicatively attributed to the fungi activity was shown in the macroscopic images.
UTILIZATION OF BIOPULPING BLACK LIQUOR AS PRESERVATIVE TO FUNGAL ATTACK ON JABON WOOD (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) Anita, Sita Heris; Fatriasari, Widya; Zulfiana, Deni
Teknologi Indonesia Vol 37, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : LIPI Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (16.051 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jti.v37i3.229

Abstract

Biopulping black liquor, byproduct from biopulping process using white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) that has been incubated for 30 and 45 days, was used as preservative of Jabon wood (Anthocephalus cadambaMiq.). The main objectives of this study was to investigate the effect of various dipping durations of preservative on absorption process into wood and the weight loss of un-preserved and preserved wood againts fungal attack. Preservation method used in this study was dipping method with various dipping durations (i.e. 10, 30, and 60 minutes) with triplicate. The result showed that dipping process of of Jabon wood into biopulping black liquor for 60 minutes demonstrated the highest retention, i.e.0.21 g/cm3. The weight losses suffered fom by un-preserved and preserved Jabon wood were 55.19% to 55.67% and 6.64% to 12.78%, respectively. Biopulping black liquor had improved the resistance of Jabon wood to both white-rot and brown rot fungi attacks compared to untreated wood sample.
PRETREATMENT TRAMETES VERSICOLOR DAN PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS PADA BAGAS UNTUK PRODUKSI BIOETANOL Anita, Sita Heris; Fajriutami, Triyani; Fitria, -; Ermawar, Riksfardini Annisa; Yuli Yanto, Dede Heri; Hermiati, Euis
Teknologi Indonesia Vol 34 (2011)
Publisher : LIPI Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (16.048 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jti.v34iKhusus.37

Abstract

Single and mix cultures of white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus has been applied onto sugarcane bagasse as a pretreatment process. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of single and mix cultures of white-rot fungi in lignin degradation while maintaining minimum loss of ?-cellulose of sugarcane bagasse. Single and mix cultures of white-rot fungi T. versicolor and P. ostreatus have been inoculated onto sugarcane bagasse which varied in 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/v) with inoculum comparison 1:1. After 4-week incubation, analysis was carried out on the content of extractives, lignin, ?-cellulose and hemicellulose. The result showed that 4-week incubation of single culture of P. ostreatus was more advantageous as a pretreatment method for sugarcane bagasse, with considerable number of lignin degradation (17,95%) and minimum loss of cellulose (11,00%) and hemicelluloses (5,75%). As with mix cultures, incubation period should have been reduced to prevent significant loss of cellulose and hemicellulose. Furthermore, with shorter incubation period, this biological pretreatment process will be more interesting and feasible for the industry.
EFFECTS OF CHITOSAN COATING ON THE PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF FOOD PACKAGING PAPER Prasetiyo, Kurnia Wiji; Zulfiana, Deni; Anita, Sita Heris; Fatriasari, Widya; Suryanegara, Lisman; Masruchin, Nanang; Gutari, Sesmi
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Vol 21, No 2: JANUARY 2020
Publisher : Center for Science & Technology of Advanced Materials - National Nuclear Energy Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (990.486 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/jsmi.2020.21.2.5600

Abstract

EFFECTS OF CHITOSAN COATING ON THE PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF FOOD PACKAGING PAPER. The coating process on food packaging paper is carried out to improve the food safety and health aspect from dangerous substance migration from food packaging into food. Chitosan has attracted interest in packaging, especially in food packaging as edible films and coatings. A paper from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) pulp was coated with chitosan using different pulp weight (1, 1.5, 2 g) and chitosan content (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1 g) as parameters. The effect of chitosan as coating material on physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties was studied. The results showed that the density and grammage values of the paper increased after coating due to the increasing of chitosan content. The mechanical properties of the coated paper, such as tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation, improved in line with the increase of chitosan content and pulp weight. The addition of chitosan on paper imparts antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram- negative bacteria (Escherichia coli).
Pretreatment of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) at Bench-Scale High Temperature-Pressure Steam Reactor for Enhancement of Enzymatic Saccharification Sari, Fahriya Puspita; Falah, Faizatul; Anita, Sita Heris; Ramadhan, Kharisma Panji; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Fatriasari, Widya; Hermiati, Euis
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 10, No 2 (2021): May 2021
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.2021.32343

Abstract

Upscaling of biomass pretreatment from laboratory scale to a bench-scale reactor is one of the important steps in the application of the pretreatment for pilot or commercial scale. This study reports the optimization of pretreatment conditions, namely reaction temperature and time, by one factor at a time (OFAT) method for the enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). OPEFB was pretreated using high temperature-pressure steam reactor with different reaction temperatures (160, 170, 180, 190, 200 °C) and times (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 min). The effectiveness of the pretreatment was determined based on chemical compositions of raw OPEFB and OPEFB pulp and sugar production from enzymatic saccharification of the OPEFB pulp.  Solubilized components from OPEFB, such as glucose, xylose, formic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and furfural in the hydrolysate that generated during steam pretreatment were also determined. Pretreatment at 180°C for 20 min provides the highest sugar yields (97.30% of glucose yield per initial cellulose and 88.86% of xylose yield per initial hemicellulose). At the optimum condition, 34.9% of lignin and 30.75% of hemicellulose are successfully removed from the OPEFB and resulted in 3.43 delignification selectivity. The relationship between severity factor and by-products generated and the sugars obtained after enzymatic saccharification are discussed. The pulp of OPEFB at the optimum condition was also characterized for its morphological characteristic by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and crystallinity by X-ray diffractometry (XRD).  These pulp characteristics are then compared with those of the raw OPEFB. The steam pretreatment causes some fiber disruptions with more defined and opened structures and increases the crystallinity index (CrI) by 2.9% compared to the raw OPEFB.
Pengaruh Penambahan Surfaktan pada Fermentasi Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit dengan Praperlakuan Uap Air Panas Bertekanan dengan Katalis Asam Maleat Anita, Sita Heris; Ashrianis, Devi Nury; Fatriasari, Widya
Jurnal Riset Kimia Vol 12, No 1 (2021): March
Publisher : Universitas Andalas

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25077/jrk.v12i1.379

Abstract

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) has high potency to be converted into second generation bioethanol production. OPEFB pretreated liquid hot water (LHW) assisted maleic acid (MA) pretreatment was used as substrate in simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF). This pretreatment was conducted at 180 °C for 70 min by using 1.5% (w/v) MA acid concentration with material and liquid ratio of 1:14. Subsequently, the pretreated samples were fermented by addition of surfactant, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 and amphiphilic lignin derivatives (A-LD) using Kluyveromyces marxianus InaCC Y119 yeast at temperature of 38 °C for 89 h. Before SSF, pretreated OPEFB was pre hydrolyzed by cellulase enzyme with enzyme loading 30 FPU/g at 50 °C for 3 h. Fermentation filtrate was taken at 0, 24, 48, 72, dan 89 h as much as 1.5 mL for reducing sugar and ethanol content determination. The surfactant addition can enhance reducing sugar and also ethanol content compared to control. The highest ethanol content of 1.251 g/L was found at fermentation of OPEFB pretreated MA with PEG 4000 surfactant at 89 h.