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Evaluation of Adaptation and Production of Three Selected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Peat Land Area of Central Kalimantan Fitriani, Hani; Hartati, N. Sri; Sudarmonowati, Enny
Jurnal ILMU DASAR Vol 20 No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (178.553 KB) | DOI: 10.19184/jid.v20i2.7449

Abstract

Along with the increasing the of the land-use change of the fertile agricultural land in Java, the better awareness has been subjected to the importance of function peat land for agricultural development. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tuber plant that potentially developed as important carbohydrate source. The objective of this research was to identify superior cassava variety candidate of selected cassava developed by of Research Centre Biotechnology, LIPI which has high adaptation capability and yield in Central Kalimantan peat land area. This research was conducted from July 2010 through May 2011 in Central Kalimantan Province (Kalampangan dan Pulang Pisau in total of area 1.5 and 2.25 ha respectively). There were three genotypes of cassava tested, i.e. Iding (high amylose), Gebang (low amylose), and Menti (high starch) compared to Adira 4 (35 ton/ha) and Darul Hidayah (102.1 ton/ha). The variables observed were plant height (cm) and tuber weight (grams). Observations were conducted at the age of 10 months. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. The results showed that the plant height and yield were higher in Pulang Pisau than Kalampangan even though the difference is not significant (P ≤ 0,05). Darul Hidayah has highest plant height and yield, 229.8 cm and 2271 g respectively among other genotypes/varieties grown at Pulang Pisau even though the value was not significant, whereas in Kalampangan, Darul Hidayah showed the lowest yield (670 g). Based on the data obtained, the Darul Hidayah variety can be cultivated by farmers in Pulang Pisau peat land to fulfill the availability of superior cassava seedlings for food, feed and industry. Keywords: Peat, tuber yield, plant height, liquid organic fertilizer, yam wood.
The Polymorphic Gene of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) of Phytoene Synthase (PSY) to Characterize Carotenoids Yellow Root Cassava Kurniawati, Siti; Hartati, N. Sri; Hartati, Hartati; Sudarmonowati, Enny
Jurnal ILMU DASAR Vol 21 No 1 (2020)
Publisher : Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (293.8 KB) | DOI: 10.19184/jid.v21i1.9197

Abstract

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is a carbohydrate sources containing a limited amount of micronutrients, but some genotypes contain β-carotene as the precursor of vitamin A in the storage roots and leaves. Improvement of β-caroteneand minerals such as Fe / Zn content of cassava’s nutrition is mostly through by biofortification program. The storage root of β-carotene recognized by a yellow or yellowish color while the apical shoots with red to purplish. β-carotenein carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is an expression of the phytoene synthase (PSY) gene. The MePSY2 gene, one of the three MePSY family is the key gene to characterize carotenoids related gene in cassava. In this study, sequencing of the two cassava fulllenght PSY genomic DNA was carried out in conserved areas in the PSY gene region (PSY1 and PSY2) from the DNA of the cassava leaves. Adira1, Carvita25 and Ubi Kuning are yellow root storage genotypes (K1, K2 and K3) while Adira4 and Menti are white root storage genotypes (P1 and P2). Carvita25 is induced somaclonal variant of the Adira4 genotype. Contiq and consensus of nucleotide base sequences from the five cassava genotypes and CM3306-4 cultivars (acc GU111715.1) as references were analysed using the lasergene DNASTAR sequence analysis program. The results of the alignment of the base sequence constituent of the MePSY2 gene showed that the PSY2 gene with amplified genome length was 2,380 base pairs (bp) consisting of 1,140 bp exon region and 1,240 bp intron region. In the conserved coding region, there was a difference of one nucleotide base, that is, base C in two white tuber cassava genotypes replaced with A in three yellow tuber cassava genotypes in the 1.485 base (C1.485A). The SNP converts the amino acid (aa) alanine (A) to aspartic acid (D) at the 191th (A191D). Single Nucleotide polymorphism in conserved coding region can be used further as carotenoid marker for plant breeding of yellow root cassava. Keywords: β carotene, PSY gene, polymorphic gene SNP, yellow root cassava.
CRYOPRESERVATION OF TRUE-SEED AND EMBRYO OF MAIZE AND SOYBEAN FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE Sudarmonowati, Enny; Fitryatmi, I.; Sadjad, S.
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 2, No 2 (2001): October 2001
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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Abstract

Study on cryopreservation of Indonesian local cultivars and improved  varieties of maize and soybean has never been done. This method may be used for long-term preservation of seeds of maize and soybean. In this study, the method was applied to maize and soybean, Arjuna and Wilis respectively, as a model for preserving germplasm of ortodox seeds. Whole seeds and excised embryos of both varieties were subjected to twomethods of cryopreservation, i.e., two-stage cooling and rapid freezing with or without 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectant solution prior to immersion in liquid nitrogen (-196oC). Results indicated that there was no significant difference between the use of DMSO for both species in terms of viability, although pretreatment in DMSO was slightly reducedthe percentage of viability of both species. Slow freezing to -30oC prior to immersion in the liquid nitrogen could give as high as 76.67% and 51.67% surviving whole seeds of maize and soybean, respectively. Preserving excised embryos of maize in the liquid nitrogen using either slow or rapid freezing significantly reduced the percentage of viability from 20-76.67% to 5-18.33% (four folds) depending on treatments applied. Results also showed that one day or 15 minutes of immersion of samples in the liquid nitrogen gave rise to similar values of viability of maize and soybean, i.e., 20-60% and 20-51.67%, respectively depending on  treatments applied. These results implied that for long-term storage of maize and soybean seeds as they could survive at the rate of 76.67% and 51.67% respectively, the seed can be treated by prefreezing to -30oCwithout the presence of DMSO prior to immersion in liquid nitrogen.
Molecular cloning of gene fragment encoding 4-coumarate: Coenzyme A ligase of Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) Hartati, Sri N.; Sudarmonowati, Enny; S, Suharsono; Sofyan, Kurnia
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 15, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1105.206 KB)

Abstract

4-coumarate:Coenzyme A ligase (4CL) plays an important role in lignin biosynthetic pathway thatcatalyzed the activation of coumaric acid, caffeic acid or ferulic acid to be a syringil monomer. Ligninbiosynthesis control through 4CL down regulating would support lower lignin wood production. Theobjective of this study was to clone conserved region cDNA of gene encoding 4CL. Gene fragment isolation wasconducted by means of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using degenerateheterologous primer. The RT-PCR products were purified, sequenced and analyzed to select the highlyhomologous fragment to 4CL. BLASTanalysis result showed that deduction of amino acid sequences from oneof two RT-PCR product nucleotide was highly homologous with the 4CL conserved region from Rubbus ideaus,Oryza sativa, Populus tomentosa, Populus balsamifera, Betulla platyphilla, Nicotiana tabacum, and Arabidopsisthaliana with identity ranging from 78-90%.Key words: 4-coumarate: Coenzyme A ligase, lignin, sengon
AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAUN DAN UMBI DARI ENAM JENIS SINGKONG (Manihot utilissima Pohl) - (Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Tuber from Six Types of Cassava (Manihot utilissima Pohl) Rachman, Fauzy; Hartati, Sri; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Simanjuntak, Partomuan
Biopropal Industri Vol 7, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Pontianak

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (90.206 KB)

Abstract

Cassava is a staple food after rice and maize in Indonesia. In general, parts of cassava plants that consumed are the leaves and tubers. This research aimed to compare antioxidant activity of leaves and tuber from six types of cassava (Manihot utilissima Pohl). The leaves and tubers of the cassava plant from Cibinong were extracted with methanol separately. Methanol extract was measured the inhibition percentage as an antioxidant using DPPH reagent at 100 ppm. Results showed that Pucuk Biru leaves type has the highest inhibition at 88.09% and IC50 of 45.161 ppm.Keywords: antioxidant, Cibinong, DPPH, IC50, Manihot utilissima Pohl ABSTRAKKetela pohon merupakan bahan pangan pokok setelah beras dan jagung di Indonesia. Bagian tanaman singkong yang umumnya dikonsumsi adalah daun dan umbi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan aktivitas antioksidan daun dan umbi dari enam jenis singkong (Manihot utilissima Pohl). Daun dan umbi tanaman singkong dari Cibinong masing-masing diekstraksi secara terpisah menggunakan pelarut metanol. Ekstrak metanol yang diperoleh diukur persentase daya inhibisinya menggunakan metode peredaman radikal bebas dengan reagen DPPH pada konsentrasi 100 bpj. Hasil pengujian antioksidan menunjukkan bahwa bagian daun singkong jenis Pucuk Biru mempunyai daya inhibisi yang paling tinggi yaitu 88,09% dan IC50 sebesar 45,16 bpj. Kata kunci: antioksidan, Cibinong, DPPH, IC50, singkong
INDUKSI MUTASI DAN SELEKSI IN VITRO TANAMAN GANDUM (Triticum aestivum L.) Sari, Laela; Purwito, Agus; Soepandi, Didy; Purnamaningsih, Ragapadmi; Sudarmonowati, Enny
Jurnal Bioteknologi & Biosains Indonesia (JBBI) Vol 3, No 2 (2016): December 2016
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (641.087 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jbbi.v3i2.36

Abstract

INDUCTION MUTATION AND SELECTION OF IN VITRO PLANT OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)The goal of this research was to produce wheat crop which is tolerant to lowland condition.Six varieties were used, Dewata, Selayar, Alibey, Oasis, Rabe and HP1744. This research consisted of 4 stages: production of the best callus on MS medium containing 3 g/L 2.4-D, induced mutation of embryogenic callus using EMS, in vitro selection of callus at temperature of 27–35°C, and callus regeneration. The best result for callus production was 76% for Dewata and 70% for Selayar varieties. Higher concentration of EMS and longer soaking time decreased the percentage of callus growth. LC50 for Dewata was 0.3% EMS at 30 minutes and that for Selayar was 0.1% EMS at 60 minutes. The higher the temperature was, the lower was the adaptation tolerant of the plants, and callus growth was inhibited. At the highest temperature (35°C) the callus did not grow at all.Keywords: Induced mutation, Triticum aestivum, EMS, in vitro selection, callusABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk merakit tanaman gandum yang toleran pada dataran rendah. Varietas yang digunakan ada 6 yaitu Dewata, Selayar, Alibey, Oasis, Rabe dan HP-1744. Penelitian terdiri atas empat tahap yaitu induksi pembentukan kalus terbaik menggunakan media MS + 3 g/L 2,4-D (dipilih dua varietas yang terbaik), induksi mutasi kalus embriogenik menggunakan EMS, seleksi kalus in vitro pada suhu 27–35°C, dan regenerasi. Hasil induksi kalus terbaik terdapat pada varietas Dewata sebesar 76% dan Selayar sebesar 70%. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi EMS dan semakin lama waktu perendaman yang digunakan maka semakin menurun persentase pertumbuhan kalus. LC50 varietas Dewata adalah EMS 0,3% waktu 30 menit sedangkan LC50 varietas Selayar adalah EMS 0,1% waktu 60 menit.Semakin tinggi suhunya maka semakin berkurang toleran adaptasi tanaman tersebut, dan pertumbuhan kalus semakin sedikit. Bahkan pada suhu tertinggi yaitu suhu 35°C tidak ada pertumbuhan kalus sama sekali.Kata Kunci: Induksi mutasi, Triticum aestivum, EMS, seleksi in vitro, kalus
Improved Regeneration, Acclimatization and Shoot Cutting Production of “Gebang” Cassava Derived from Irradiated In Vitro Shoots Supatmi, Supatmi; Sudarmonowati, Enny
ANNALES BOGORIENSES Vol 16, No 2 (2012): Annales Bogorienses
Publisher : Research Center for Biotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3748.807 KB) | DOI: 10.1234/64

Abstract

Gebang is an Indonesian local genotype which has been selected as superior genotype for low amylose  cassava. Prior to induction of new mutants of this genotype, series of research have been conducted to improve regeneration and acclimatization as well as shoot cuttings production of irradiated in vitro shoots. Four dosage treatments of gamma ray irradiation i.e. those of at 0; 0.2; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 krad were applied to 32 in vitro shoots multiplied from apical shoots of plants in the field. The highest multiplication rate and acclimatized shoots were obtained from shoots irradiated with 0.2 krad multiplied on various level of BAP added on MS medium and resulted that MS supplemented with 1 mg/L BAP was the best medium. The phenotypic variation was observed in shoots irradiated with 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 krad while the ones irradiated with 0.2 krad performed normal appearances. Subsequent production of propagated young stem cuttings called “ratooning system” decreased after the second cycle of propagation especially in the survival rate of the ones irradiated with 0.2 krad. The findings lead to the opportunity to produce cassava propagules derived from irradiated in vitro culture at a higher amount using Gebang genotype as a model.Keywords: cassava Gebang, irradiated shoot, young stem cutting/ratooning , acclimatization, in vitro.
Agronomic Characterization of Wheat Mutants (Triticum aestivum) of M3 Generation Planted in Sukabumi Sari, Laela; Purwito, Agus; Sopandie, Didy; Purnamaningsih, Ragapadmi; Sudarmonowati, Enny
Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Vol 8, No 3 (2016): December 2016
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v8i3.6612

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify the selection criteria to obtain a superior mutant derived from the wheat plants of such varieties as Dewata, Selayar and Alibey, adaptive in medium land. The analysis of agronomic growth characters showed a significantly effect on a growth percentage of the initial growth (8 mutants), flowering time (1 mutant), panicle stem length (15 mutants), number of panicles (7 mutants), the number of grains per panicle (8 mutants), grain weight observed (8 mutants), grain weight per genotype (6 mutants), leaf area (2 mutants) and leaf greenness (5 mutants). The effects on the characters of ripe time, harvest, panicle length and plant height were not significant. The mutants of Dewata, Selayar and Alibey could be selected based on the characters of panicle stem length, number of grains per panicle and grain weight per observation because these characters generated more mutants than the other characters. The correlation analysis between the characters of growth and yield components of wheat mutants showed that the number of grains per panicle was positively correlated with the grain weight observed, while the length of panicle stem was positively correlated with grain weight per genotype, number of panicles and leaf area. Hopefully some mutants produced could adapt to the tropical medium land, thus adding to the diversity of wheat germplasm in Indonesia, thereby reducing the import of wheat to Indonesia.How to CiteSari, L., Purwito, A., Sopandie, D., Purnamaningsih, R. & Sudarmonowati, E. (2016). Agronomic Characterization of Wheat Mutants (Triticum aestivum) of M3 Generation Planted in Sukabumi. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3), 353-361.
Massive In Vitro Propagation Of Sandalwood Through Friable Embryogenic Callus Supatmi, Supatmi; Ardiyanti, Nurdiya; Rahman, Nurhamidar; Sudarmonowati, Enny
ANNALES BOGORIENSES Vol 20, No 1 (2016): Annales Bogorienses
Publisher : Research Center for Biotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (499.302 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/ab.v20i1.219

Abstract

Sandalwood (Santalum album), which belongs to Santalaceae family, is a commercially important tree in Indonesia due to its many application. However,its population has significantly depleted since the planting materials using conventional methods are difficult to be provided. This study was conducted to mass propagate sandalwood using in vitro methods through friable embryogenic callus (FEC). The somatic embryos were formed using leaves cultured in MS +0.5 mg/l +1 mg/l indole acetic acid (IAA), and MS +1 mg/l IAA + 0.2 mg/l kinetin as well as 0.5 MS+1 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3). Primary somatic embryos (PSE) and secondary somatic embryos (SSE) then formed friable embryogenic callus when they were repetitively transferred to MS +1.5 mg/l BAP + 1.2 mg/l kinetin every 3 weeks. The maturation and regeneration of FEC was best done in the MS +1.5 mg/l BAP + 1.2 mg/l kinetin for 4-8 weeks. The acclimatization of sandalwood plantlets can be best conducted in the medium containing soil, sand and compos in ratio of 1:1:1 with the companion plant Murraya paniculata, which gave the best percentage of survival rate and the lowest percentage of falling leaves.
Identification of Differentially Expressed cDNA in Cassava under Drought Stress Using cDNA-RAPD Approach Hartati, N Sri; Supatmi, Supatmi; Aryaningrum, Pramesti Dwi; Sudarmonowati, Enny
ANNALES BOGORIENSES Vol 17, No 1 (2013): Annales Bogorienses
Publisher : Research Center for Biotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.1234/72

Abstract

Cassava is an important carbohydrate source that provides food security and alternative renewable energy development. This plant is naturally drought tolerant, but there is a wide variation within cassava genotypes in their ability to maintain high yield and starch production under drought stress. It has been reported that cassava clones with leaf retention or stay green trait can produce more total fresh biomass and high root dry matter compared to drought susceptible cultivars. The genetic, biochemical and molecular bases of stay green trait need to be understood to develop drought resistant cassava cultivars since water stress limits yield and starch production. Differential Display (DD)RT-PCR is a powerful technique for analyzing differences in gene expression. The method is based on the detection of the differentially expressed cDNAs from two or more samples. The main objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed cDNA in cassava under drought stress by employing a cDNA-RAPD approach. In this study, we used cassava genotype Ubi Kuning which was considered the most responsive to water insufficiency (45 days without watering). Leaf samples were collected from water stressed and well-watered plants at day 45. Among 11 random primers, OPB03 and OPH17 have identified differentially expressed cDNA in Ubi Kuning. Further characterization of these PCR products of expressed cDNA under drought stress may open possibility the development of cassava with improved drought resistance through genetic engineering and/or marker assisted selection (MAS).