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PRODUCTION OF CONIDIA BY ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI AND THEIR PATHOGENICITY AGAINST COPTOTERMES SP. Lestari, Anis Sri; Krishanti, Ni Putu Ratna Ayu; Meisyara, Dita; Zulfiana, Deni; Zulfitri, Apriwi
Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Vol 12, No 1 (2020): April 2020 Article-in-Press
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v12i1.22435

Abstract

Entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to infect most arthropods including termites which are economically important major insects pest of wood, wood products and building structures. However, the application of this fungus in the field has not shown satisfactory results yet, one of which is constrained in mass production of conidia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 16 types of biodegradable products and waste as substrates for mass production of conidia using solid state fermentation method and two types of inoculum namely solid and liquid inoculum. Toxicity tests were carried out on subterranean termites (Coptotermes sp.) based on JIS K 1571, 2010. The parameters observed were the number and dry weight of the conidia produced, conidial viability, nutrient content of the substrate, and percentage of termite mortality. The results showed that rice, sorghum and corn were the best media for the growth of entomopathogenic fungi based on the number of conidia and dry weight of the conidia produced. Metarhizium sp. T4.B23 produced the highest number of conidia, 1.12 x 1011 conidia/100 g substrate and yielded 180.9 ± 0.623 g dry conidia/kg of rice; followed by Metarhizium sp. B2.2 grown on sorghum that resulted in 1.11 x 1010 conidia/100 g substrates and 8 ± 0.570 g /kg sorghum; and B. bassiana produced 8.3 x 109 conidia/100 g substrate and 31.24 ± 0.407 gr/ kg sorghum. Metarhizium sp. B2.2 showed the highest toxicity to termites with 100% mortality was observed within the second day of testing. Therefore the conidia of Metahizium sp. B2.2 is potential to be developed as a biopesticide using rice or sorghum substrate as a carrier.
Ketahanan Papan Komposit dari Pelepah Sagu (Metroxylon sago Rottb.) terhadap Jamur Pelapuk dan Rayap Tanah Kusumah, Sukma S; Zulfiana, Deni
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 32, No 4 (2014): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji ketahanan papan komposit dari pelepah sagu menggunakan perekat polyurethane (PU)dan phenol formaldehyde (PF) terhadap jamur pelapuk dan rayap. Ukuran dan target kerapatan papan komposit adalah 30x30x1 cm3 dan 0,5 g cm-3. Papan komposit dibuat dari susunan pelepah sagu yang dikempa dingin untuk papan komposit menggunakan perekat PU dan kempa panas untuk papan yang menggunakan perekat PF dengan tekanan spesifik 25 kg cm-2 selama 24 jam untuk kempa dingin dan 10 menit untuk kempa panas pada suhu 140 °C. Kadar padatan dari perekat cair adalah 50% dengan variasi kadar perekat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu 10%, 12% dan 14%. Pengujian berdasarkan standar JIS K 1571 2004. Berdasarkan persentase kehilangan berat, papan komposit menggunakan perekat PU (polyurethane) dan PF (phenol formaldehyde) tidak tahan serangan jamur pelapuk dan rayap.
BAKTERI ENTOMOPATOGEN SEBAGAI AGEN BIOKONTROL TERHADAP LARVA Spodoptera litura (F.) [Entomopathogenic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agent Against Spodoptera litura (F.) Larvae] Krishanti, Ni Putu Ratna Ayu; Zulfiana, Deni; Wikantyoso, Bramantyo; Zulfitri, Apriwi
BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 16, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2665.513 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/beritabiologi.v16i1.2153

Abstract

Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the agricultural pests that attacking almost all kinds of herbaceous plants, especiallyvegetables. Insect control using entomopathogenic bacteria is an alternative strategy that is effective and has a lower environmental impact than the use of synthetic insecticides. The purpose of this research was to explore entomopathogenic bacteria that have insecticidal activity against S. litura larvae at various stages of instars. The result showed that 25% of total number of isolated bacteria have potency as entomopathogenic bacteria. Isolate Staphylococcus sciuri strain BLSP-3 and isolate Serratia sp. strain BLSP-4 showed the highest larvicidal activity against the first and second instar larvae of S. litura 83% and 86%, respectively. The activity against on the third instar larvae however was only by 40%. However, the mortality caused by both isolates was lower than that of Bacillus thuringiensis (more than 90% mortality to the first and second instars and 80 % of the third instar larvae). It is suggested that both of isolates are potential to be developed further as a biocontrol agent to control S. litura population.
Efficacy Test on Some Entomopathogenic Bacterial Isolates of the Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica Cockroaches (Orthoptera) at Laboratory Scale Wikantyoso, Bramantyo; Rini, Monaliza Sekar; Zulfiana, Deni; Krishanti, Ni Putu Ratna Ayu
Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Vol 10, No 2 (2018): August 2018
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i2.12934

Abstract

Cockroach is one of insects which plays a role as a disease vector, causing negative impacts to human health. Controlling cockroach by using excessive insecticide adds residue to the environment and strengthens its resistance toward insecticides. The objective of this research was to implement and evaluate the alternative use of biological control agent, such as entomopathogenic bacteria against two types of cockroach. In this study, three entomopathogenic bacterial isolates derived from dead Spodoptera litura pupa and Bacillus thuringiensis were employed. The test was performed by administering spraying and baiting methods at cell concentration of 108 CFU/ml. The results showed that three entomopathogenic bacterial isolates used in this study affected cockroach mortality. The result of morphological observation and Postulate Koch test showed that cockroach mortality was caused by the bacterial isolates. The spraying method on BLSP4 bacterial isolate contributed to the highest mortality rate by 80% to the Blatella germanica. Meanwhile, in the baiting method, the isolate of B. thuringiensis caused the highest mortality to the Periplaneta americana by 10%. Based on the mortality period, it can be recognized that BLSP4 treatment with spraying method affected the mortality of B. germanica effectively within 2 hours 30 minutes 46 seconds. An important finding in this study was that BLSP4 bacteria has been known potential for controlling cockroach using spraying method. The result of this study provides insights that BLSP4 bacteria can be used as a new alternative for controlling cockroach and generally in pest management.
Phylogenetic Analysis of Polyporous Fungi Collected from Batam Botanical Garden, Riau Province, Indonesia Krishanti, Ni Putu Ratna Ayu; Zulfitri, Apriwi; Zulfiana, Deni; Lestari, Anis Sri; Kartika, Titik
Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Vol 10, No 3 (2018): December 2018
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (741.104 KB) | DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i3.5829

Abstract

Botanical gardens are areas that provide protection for trees and other organisms like polyporous fungi. Polyporous fungi are important fungi that degrade remaining lignocellulosic in leaf litter or dead trees. These mycobiota are also noted for their vital role in biorefinery, bioremediation, medicine and phytopathogen. The knowledge of the importance of the polyporous fungi to describe polyporous fungal species is fundamental for generating data base information of their occurrence and their functions. This research’s goal was to explore and characterize the polyporous fungi collected in Batam Botanical Garden in three sampling areas. Fungal samples were collected in May and July 2017. Subsequently, morphological characters were recorded, the fungal tissue was isolated to extract the DNA, then the data sequence was amplified and aligned to construct a phylogenetic tree. Five fungal families found belong to order Polyporales and were classified morphologically. They were Polyporaceae, Ganodermataceae, Fomitopsidaceae, Irpicaceae and Hymenochaetaceae. Three fungal species namely; Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes ijubarskii, and Antrodia wangii were identified based on phyllogenetic analysis whereas seven other fungal samples were identified as Earliella scabrosa, Hexagonia tenuis, Polyporus tenuiculus Lenzites betulina, Lentinus concavus, Phellinus rimosus and Hexagonia apiaria. This study classifies and adds fundamental databases on fungal taxonomy and diversity on the fungal organisms found in Batam Botanical Garden. This background data is vital to carry out an advance research in some areas such as bio-chemistry, bio-degradation, pharmacology and biotechnology.
UTILIZATION OF BIOPULPING BLACK LIQUOR AS PRESERVATIVE TO FUNGAL ATTACK ON JABON WOOD (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) Anita, Sita Heris; Fatriasari, Widya; Zulfiana, Deni
Teknologi Indonesia Vol 37, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : LIPI Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (16.051 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jti.v37i3.229

Abstract

Biopulping black liquor, byproduct from biopulping process using white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) that has been incubated for 30 and 45 days, was used as preservative of Jabon wood (Anthocephalus cadambaMiq.). The main objectives of this study was to investigate the effect of various dipping durations of preservative on absorption process into wood and the weight loss of un-preserved and preserved wood againts fungal attack. Preservation method used in this study was dipping method with various dipping durations (i.e. 10, 30, and 60 minutes) with triplicate. The result showed that dipping process of of Jabon wood into biopulping black liquor for 60 minutes demonstrated the highest retention, i.e.0.21 g/cm3. The weight losses suffered fom by un-preserved and preserved Jabon wood were 55.19% to 55.67% and 6.64% to 12.78%, respectively. Biopulping black liquor had improved the resistance of Jabon wood to both white-rot and brown rot fungi attacks compared to untreated wood sample.
Pengembangan Teknologi Pengendalian Serangga Hama Gudang Menggunakan Pestisida Alami Berbasis Nimba {Azadirachta indica. A.Juss) Development of Stored Product Pest Control Technology Using Biopesticide Based on Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. Juss) Yusuf, Sulaeman; Setiawan, Khoirul Himmi; Tarmadi, Didi; Zulfiana, Deni; Ismayati, Maya; Setyowati, Atik
JURNAL PANGAN Vol 21, No 3 (2012): PANGAN
Publisher : Perum BULOG

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1860.515 KB) | DOI: 10.33964/jp.v21i3.153

Abstract

Selama dalam masa penyimpanan, komoditi hasil panen dapat mengalami kerusakan dan susut bobot (losses) yang disebabkan oleh serangan hama. Sitophilus oryzae adalah salah satu penyebab kerugian dan kerusakan terbesar karena memiliki kemampuan cepat berkembang biak akibat suplai makanan yang melimpah, mampu berpindah bersama-sama dengan komoditas hasil panen, serta mempunyai daya adaptasi pada kondisi kering. Pengendalian secara kimiawi tidak menjadi solusi, karena masih menggunakan bahan-bahan pestisida berbahaya seperti Carbamat, Piretroid, PH3 dan Metil Bromida,yang memiliki efek karsinogenik yang memicu kanker, akibat efek residual yang tertinggal dalam komoditas pangan. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, penelitian ini menawarkan teknologi pengendalian hama gudang penyimpanan hasil panen, menggunakan pestisida alami berbasis nimba, Azadirachta indica yang efektif, aman sekaligus ramah lingkungan. Hasil bioassay menunjukkan respon yang sangat baik, dimana mortalitas 100 persen S. orizae dicapai pada konsentrasi 10 ppm produk formulasi. Uji toksisitas akut oral dan dermal juga menunjukkan produk formulasi termasuk kategori bahan tidak berbahaya (WHO, 2003).During storage, stored product commodities could be damaged and lose weight caused by pest attack. Sitophilus oryzae is one of the most dangerous stored pests because of their fast reproductive abilities due to abundant supply of foods; their moving abilities with stored commodities; and their adaptability to extremely drying condition.Chemical treatments are not solving the problems because they still contain some toxical substances like carbamate, pyretroid, methyl boric, that would lead to residual contain remains on food commodity and possess carsinogenic effect Based on that background, this research proposes new stored product pest control technology using effective and environmentally friendly biopesticide based on neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Bioassay results against S. oryzae show that 100 percent mortality is achieved at 10 ppm biopesticide formulation. Both acute oral and dermal toxicity tests also show that biopesticide formulation is classified as not harmful substances (WHO, 2003). 
Biological Control of Wood Destroying Organism Using Plant Extracts Collected from Mt. Merapi National Park, Indonesia Ismayati, Maya; Zulfiana, Deni; Tarmadi, Didi; Lestari, Anis Sri; Krishanti, Ni Putu Ratna Ayu; Himmi, Setiawan Khoirul; Fajar, Anugerah; Yusuf, Sulaeman
Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Vol 11, No 3 (2019): Article-in-Press
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v11i3.20102

Abstract

Due to the climate change and global warming, the biodiversity database has gained the attention of the government. In line with the Indonesian Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (IBSAP), we have collected plants with insecticidal activity based on the local wisdom. This program aimed to protect Indonesian biodiversity from deforestation along with the loss of the number of species. This research?s goal was to evaluate termiticidal and antifungal properties from some plant extracts collected from the Turgo forest area, Mt. Merapi National park, Java. Three potential plants were evaluated. Based on specimen identification, the three plant samples were Kina (Cinchona sp.), Kamadoh (Dendrocnide stimulans (L.f.) Chew), and Keremi (Homalanthus populneus (Geiseler) Pax). The phytochemical test showed that Kina contained alkoloid, falvonoid, saponin, and tannin, whereas Kamadoh and Keremi contained saponin and tanin, respectively. Overall, all plant extracts have the termiticidal activities and able to inhibit wood- decay fungi with the inhibition percentage around 60% - 100%. Leaf extracts of Kina (Cinchona sp) and Keremi (Homalanthus populneus (Geiseler) showed the highest activity as wood-decay fungi inhibitor. The disclosure of the potential of bioinsecticides from some plants originating from Mount Merapi is very important before being lost due to deforestation and the Mount Merapi disaster. Thus, the potential bioinsecticide in these plants can increase its economic value as a substitute for synthetic insecticides that are friendly to the environment.
EFFECTS OF CHITOSAN COATING ON THE PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF FOOD PACKAGING PAPER Prasetiyo, Kurnia Wiji; Zulfiana, Deni; Anita, Sita Heris; Fatriasari, Widya; Suryanegara, Lisman; Masruchin, Nanang; Gutari, Sesmi
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Vol 21, No 2: JANUARY 2020
Publisher : Center for Science & Technology of Advanced Materials - National Nuclear Energy Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (990.486 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/jsmi.2020.21.2.5600

Abstract

EFFECTS OF CHITOSAN COATING ON THE PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF FOOD PACKAGING PAPER. The coating process on food packaging paper is carried out to improve the food safety and health aspect from dangerous substance migration from food packaging into food. Chitosan has attracted interest in packaging, especially in food packaging as edible films and coatings. A paper from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) pulp was coated with chitosan using different pulp weight (1, 1.5, 2 g) and chitosan content (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1 g) as parameters. The effect of chitosan as coating material on physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties was studied. The results showed that the density and grammage values of the paper increased after coating due to the increasing of chitosan content. The mechanical properties of the coated paper, such as tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation, improved in line with the increase of chitosan content and pulp weight. The addition of chitosan on paper imparts antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram- negative bacteria (Escherichia coli).
Biological Control of Wood Destroying Organism Using Plant Extracts Collected from Mt. Merapi National Park, Indonesia Ismayati, Maya; Zulfiana, Deni; Tarmadi, Didi; Lestari, Anis Sri; Krishanti, Ni Putu Ratna Ayu; Himmi, Setiawan Khoirul; Fajar, Anugerah; Yusuf, Sulaeman
Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education Vol 11, No 3 (2019): December 2019
Publisher : Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Semarang State University . Ro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v11i3.20102

Abstract

Due to the climate change and global warming, the biodiversity database has gained the attention of the government. In line with the Indonesian Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (IBSAP), we have collected plants with insecticidal activity based on the local wisdom. This program aimed to protect Indonesian biodiversity from deforestation along with the loss of the number of species. This research’s goal was to evaluate termiticidal and antifungal properties from some plant extracts collected from the Turgo forest area, Mt. Merapi National park, Java. Three potential plants were evaluated. Based on specimen identification, the three plant samples were Kina (Cinchona sp.), Kamadoh (Dendrocnide stimulans (L.f.) Chew), and Keremi (Homalanthus populneus (Geiseler) Pax). The phytochemical test showed that Kina contained alkoloid, falvonoid, saponin, and tannin, whereas Kamadoh and Keremi contained saponin and tanin, respectively. Overall, all plant extracts have the termiticidal activities and able to inhibit wood- decay fungi with the inhibition percentage around 60% - 100%. Leaf extracts of Kina (Cinchona sp) and Keremi (Homalanthus populneus (Geiseler) showed the highest activity as wood-decay fungi inhibitor. The disclosure of the potential of bioinsecticides from some plants originating from Mount Merapi is very important before being lost due to deforestation and the Mount Merapi disaster. Thus, the potential bioinsecticide in these plants can increase its economic value as a substitute for synthetic insecticides that are friendly to the environment.