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FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper) BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER Damayanti, Ratih; Fatriasari, Widya; Anita, Sita Heris
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 10, No 2 (2013): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung) bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper) using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control). Fresh and barkless large (betung) bamboo chips of 2 years old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO); P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC); P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV); and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO).After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I) based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report) requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for 45 days produced the best fiber dimension and its derived value properties. The fungi hypae colonized on the surface area of  bamboo followed by mycelium penetration into substrate (bamboo-inner structure). The partial degradation caused by delignification indicatively attributed to the fungi activity was shown in the macroscopic images.
Digestibility of Betung Bamboo Fiber Following Fungal Pretreatment Prasetya, Bambang; Syamsu, Khaswar; Jaya Wistara, Nyoman; Syafii, Wasrin; Fatriasari, Widya
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (292.278 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v18i2.394

Abstract

This research evaluated the effect of fungal pretreatment of betung bamboo fibers and enzymatic- and microwave-assisted hydrolysis on the reducing sugar yield. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass was carried out with cellulase and 10 and 20 FPU/g of substrate in a shaking incubator at 50 °C and 150 rpm for 48 h. The sulfuric acid concentration used in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was 1.0, 2.5, and 5%, either with or without the addition of activated carbon. Microwave irradiation (330 Watt) was applied for 5–12.5 min. The yield of reducing sugar was better with the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, and the yield tended to increase with an increase in the irradiation time. Based on the dry weight of the initial biomass (bamboo), pretreatment with 5% inoculum loading resulted in a higher reducing sugar yield (17.06%) than with 10% inoculum loading (14.54%). At a 1% acid concentration, the formation of brown compounds decreased, followed by a reduction in the reducing sugar yield. The addition of activated carbon at a 1% acid concentration seemed to be of no benefit with respect to the yield in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment with the 5% inoculum loading for 12.5 min at 1% acid concentration resulted in the highest reducing sugar yield. Under these conditions, the yield was 6.3-fold that of the reducing sugar yield using 20 FPU/g of cellulase. The rate of bamboo hollocellulose hydrolysis reached 22.75% of the maximum theoretical reducing sugar reducing sugar of dry biomass.
The Kraft Pulp And Paper Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) Supriyanto, Supriyanto; Iswanto, Apri Heri; Fatriasari, Widya
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Vol 47, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : ITB Journal Publisher, LPPM ITB

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (286.53 KB) | DOI: 10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2015.47.2.4

Abstract

This study investigated the potency of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) bagasse as raw material for pulp and paper using kraft pulping. The effects of alkali and sulfidity loading on kraft pulp and paper properties were also investigated. The pulping condition of the kraft pulp consisted of three levels of alkali loading (17, 19 and 22%) and sulfidity loading (20, 22 and 24%). The maximum cooking temperature was 170°C for 4 h with a liquid to wood ratio of 10:1. Kraft pulping of this Numbu bagasse produced good pulp indicated by high screen yield and delignification selectivity with a low Kappa number (< 10). The unbleached pulp sheet produced a superior brightness level and a high burst index. The increase of active alkali loading tended to produce a negative effect on the pulp yield, Kappa number and paper sheet properties. Therefore, it is suggested to use a lower active alkaline concentration.
PEMANFAATAN LIGNIN HASIL ISOLASI DARI LINDI HITAM PROSES BIOPULPING BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper) SEBAGAI MEDIA SELEKTIF JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH Anita, Sita Heris; Yuli Yanto, Dede Heri; Fatriasari, Widya
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 29, No 4 (2011): JURNAL PENELITIAN HASIL HUTAN
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2406.752 KB)

Abstract

Lindi hitam merupakan limbah industri pulp yang belum termanfaatkan dengan baik. Pemanfaatan lignin dari lindi hitam selama ini biasanya hanya digunakan sebagai perekat. Dalam bidang mikrobiologi lignin dari lindi hitam dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai media selektif untuk isolasi jamur pelapuk putih. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui manfaat lignin hasil isolasi proses biopulping sebagai media selektif untuk jamur pelapuk putih. Lignin dari lindi hitam hasil biopulping bambu, dengan proses pemasakan soda dan kraft, diisolasi dengan penambahan asam. Padatan lignin kemudian dimurnikan menggunakan larutan dioksan dan ditimbang berat serta dianalisa secara kualitatif menggunakan spektrofotometer. Lignin hasil isolasi ditambahkan pada media agar untuk uji selektifitas jamur pelapuk putih Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Trametes versicolor. Pretreatment bambu pada 30 hari inkubasi menghasilkan lignin yang lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan inkubasi selama 45 hari. Padatan lignin yang diperoleh dari hasil biopulping proses kraft juga lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan pada proses soda. Pengujian selektifitas jamur pada media alkali lignin menunjukkan bahwa fungi T. versicolor mensekresi enzim lebih cepat daripada P. chrysosporium.
PEMANFAATAN LIGNIN HASIL ISOLASI DARI LINDI HITAM PROSES BIOPULPING BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper) SEBAGAI MEDIA SELEKTIF JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH Fatriasari, Widya; Yuli Yanto, Dede Heri; Anita, Sita Heris
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 29, No 4 (2011): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2406.752 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2011.29.4.312-321

Abstract

Lindi hitam merupakan limbah industri pulp yang belum termanfaatkan dengan baik. Pemanfaatan lignin dari lindi hitam selama ini biasanya hanya digunakan sebagai perekat. Dalam bidang mikrobiologi lignin dari lindi hitam dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai media selektif untuk isolasi jamur pelapuk putih. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui manfaat lignin hasil isolasi proses biopulping sebagai media selektif untuk jamur pelapuk putih. Lignin dari lindi hitam hasil biopulping bambu, dengan proses pemasakan soda dan kraft, diisolasi dengan penambahan asam. Padatan lignin kemudian dimurnikan menggunakan larutan dioksan dan ditimbang berat serta dianalisa secara kualitatif menggunakan spektrofotometer. Lignin hasil isolasi ditambahkan pada media agar untuk uji selektifitas jamur pelapuk putih Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Trametes versicolor. Pretreatment bambu pada 30 hari inkubasi menghasilkan lignin yang lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan inkubasi selama 45 hari. Padatan lignin yang diperoleh dari hasil biopulping proses kraft juga lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan pada proses soda. Pengujian selektifitas jamur pada media alkali lignin menunjukkan bahwa fungi T. versicolor mensekresi enzim lebih cepat daripada P. chrysosporium.
FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper) BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER Fatriasari, Widya; Damayanti, Ratih; Anita, Sita Heris
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 10, No 2 (2013): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2013.10.2.89-99

Abstract

Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung) bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper) using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control). Fresh and barkless large (betung) bamboo chips of 2 years old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO); P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC); P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV); and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO).After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I) based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report) requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for 45 days produced the best fiber dimension and its derived value properties. The fungi hypae colonized on the surface area of  bamboo followed by mycelium penetration into substrate (bamboo-inner structure). The partial degradation caused by delignification indicatively attributed to the fungi activity was shown in the macroscopic images.
Optimizing the Synthesis of Lignin Derivatives from Acacia mangium to Improve the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Kraft Pulp Sorghum Bagasse Fatriasari, Widya; Hamzah, Fajar Nur; Pratomo, Bagas Ikhasan; Fajriutami, Triyani; Ermawar, Riksfardini Annisa; Falah, Faizatul; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Ghozali, Muhammad; Iswanto, Apri Heri; Hermiati, Euis; Winarni, Ina
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 9, No 2 (2020): July 2020
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.9.2.227-235

Abstract

The present study is aimed at optimizing the synthesis of Amphipilic lignin derivatives (A-LD) from the isolated lignin of A.mangium black liquor (BL), using the one and two step acid isolation method, and commercial lignin (LS) was used as comparison. The experimental design was conducted using Taguchi method, which consisted of four parameters and two level factors, with reference to the matrix orthogonal array, L8, including temperature, reaction time, amount of polyethylene glycol diglycidylethers (PEGDE) and Kraft lignin (KL). Furthermore, the kraft pulp of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was used as substrate in the enzymatic hydrolysis (NREL method), with addition of A-LD, whose functional group and surface tension were then characterised using ATR-FTIR and surface tension equipment. Conversely, an improvement in the reducing sugar yield (RSY) compared to the control was observed after adding various A-LDs to the substrate during enzymatic hydrolysis. This product was more prospective for L2S than others products under milder circumstances, due to the fact that it possesses the lowest surface tension. Also, Taguchi analysis demonstrated the treatment at 60 °C for 1 h with 3.0 g and 1.0 g of PEDGE and lignin, respectively as the optimum condition, while the amount of lignin present was included as a factor with the propensity to significantly affect A-LD L1S and LS. Therefore, it was established that the A-LDs from A. mangium kraft lignin require milder synthesis conditions, compared to other existing methods and despite the differences in optimum experimental condition for L2S and LS, the functional groups in the IR spectra possessed very identical characteristics. 
UTILIZATION OF BIOPULPING BLACK LIQUOR AS PRESERVATIVE TO FUNGAL ATTACK ON JABON WOOD (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) Anita, Sita Heris; Fatriasari, Widya; Zulfiana, Deni
Teknologi Indonesia Vol 37, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : LIPI Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (16.051 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jti.v37i3.229

Abstract

Biopulping black liquor, byproduct from biopulping process using white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) that has been incubated for 30 and 45 days, was used as preservative of Jabon wood (Anthocephalus cadambaMiq.). The main objectives of this study was to investigate the effect of various dipping durations of preservative on absorption process into wood and the weight loss of un-preserved and preserved wood againts fungal attack. Preservation method used in this study was dipping method with various dipping durations (i.e. 10, 30, and 60 minutes) with triplicate. The result showed that dipping process of of Jabon wood into biopulping black liquor for 60 minutes demonstrated the highest retention, i.e.0.21 g/cm3. The weight losses suffered fom by un-preserved and preserved Jabon wood were 55.19% to 55.67% and 6.64% to 12.78%, respectively. Biopulping black liquor had improved the resistance of Jabon wood to both white-rot and brown rot fungi attacks compared to untreated wood sample.
PERFORMANCE OF MICROWAVE PRETREATMENT ON ENZYMATIC AND MICROWAVE HYDROLYSIS OF BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamus asper) Fatriasari, Widya; Syafii, Wasrin; Wistara, Nyoman; Syamsu, Khaswar; Prasetya, Bambang
Teknologi Indonesia Vol 37, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : LIPI Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/jti.v37i3.232

Abstract

In this present study, we focused on how the changes in the best microwave pretreatment affected the performance of enzymatic and microwave hydrolysis of pretreated bamboo. This solid fraction was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis following NRE L protocol and microwave acid-hydrolysis with/without presence of activated carbon (0.5 g/g) at 1% and 5% of sulfuric acid concentration for 512.5 m at 330 watt. Short duration microwave-acid hydrolysis of microwave pretreated bamboo showed better reducing sugar yield than that of enzymatic one. Microwave heating for 12.5 inm at 330 W hydrolyzed with 1% acid using microwave irradiation demonstrated a high reducing sugar yield (25.81% of dry biomass or 27.12% of dry substrate). In this treatment, 37.92% of hollocellulose can be converted into reducing sugar or equivalent to 36.12% of maximum potential sugar released. This yield was increased 6.09 times compared to the highest reducing sugar yield coming from enzymatic hydrolysis using 20 FPU/g of cellulase enzymes. Reducing sugar yield obtained with 5% microwave acid hydrolysis of microwave pretreatment for 5 m at 770 W was equal to the result of hydrolysis for 12.5 m at 330 W. Unfortunately, the activated carbon as solid catalyst in microwave hydrolysis could only reduce brown compound without reducing sugar yield improvement.
WET/DRY CYCLING AND THE EFFECTS OF FIBER LOADING ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CEMENT COMPOSITES MIXED WITH KRAFT PULP-FIBER FROM SENGON (Falcataria Mollucana) WOOD Budiman, Ismail; Fatriasari, Widya
Teknologi Indonesia Vol 40, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : LIPI Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (27.778 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jti.v40i2.331

Abstract

Recently, pulp fiber-cement composites have found a practical application in the commercial market to replace hazardous asbestos fibers. For exterior applications, the effects of cyclical wetting and drying on the performance of cement composites were studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of filling wood fibers in cement composites prior to and after a wet/dry cycling treatment. The testing of kraft pulp fiber filling consisted of a 3, 5, and 7% of volume fraction of the composite. The target density and water to cement ratio of the composites produced was 1.5 gcm -3 , with a 0.50 base on weight, respectively. Cement composites were formed and pressed into a mold to the targeted dimensions of 30 cm × 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm (length × width × thickness) for 24hours, before they were removed from the mold. They were then subjected into two curing system conditions. First, the boards were immersed in a water tank at 18 ± 2 °C for 28 days and then tested for their mechanical properties. Secondly, the samples were immersed in the same conditions as before, but followed by a wet/dry curing cycling for 6 times before the mechanical properties were tested. Mechanical characteristics were observed according to ASTM C293-94 for flexural strength and ASTM C116-90 for compressive strength by using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The addition of pulp fiber and the wet/dry cycling treatment gave a significantly linear effect on the mechanical properties of composites. The higher amount of wood fiber filling in the cement composites resulted in a lower flexural and compressive strength of the composites. Furthermore, the wet/dry cycling treatment tended to lower the flexural strength, but not the compressive strength of the composites.