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INDONESIA
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan
ISSN : 23030623     EISSN : 24072370     DOI : -
Core Subject : Science,
This journal presents articles and information on research, development and applications in biomass conversion processes (thermo-chemical conversion; physico-chemical conversion and bio-chemical conversion) and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass. A biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in biomass and their intermediates therefore maximizing the value derived from the biomass feedstock. A biorefinery could, for example, produce one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical or nutraceutical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol (see also alcohol fuel). The high-value products increase profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet energy needs, and the power production helps to lower energy costs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from traditional power plant facilities. Future biorefineries may play a major role in producing chemicals and materials that are traditionally produced from petroleum.
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Articles 385 Documents
Effect of Chitosan, Clay, and CMC on Physicochemical Properties of Bioplastic from Banana Corm with Glycerol. Sugiharto, Agung; Syarifa, Adilla; Handayani, Nindita; Mahendra, Rizky
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 1 (2021): June 2021 [Nationally Accredited - SINTA 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i1.25323

Abstract

Bioplactic from banana corm and glycerol has been studied in this research. In addition, the physical chemical properties of it has been improved by adding chitosan, clay and CMC as filler and glycerol as plasticizer. Plastic that produced form organic material such as starch usually has poor properties in physical and mechanical. Composition variation of chitosan, clay and CMC as filler then combined by variation of glycerol as plasticizer have produced significant improve of the bioplastic physical properties. Properties of the bioplastic that studied in this research was focused to biodegradation, elongation, and tensile strength. The addition of fillers and plasticizers is carried out to produce a better bioplastics. This study used 3 variations of the filler composition : 4, 5, and 6 grams and 2 variations of the plasticizer composition: 1 ml and 2 ml. The bioplastics that produced were tested for tensile strength, elongation, and biodegradation of the soil for 7 days. The best tensile strength results is 8.43 MPa for bioplastic that using CMC fillers. On the other side, the best elongation percentage is 9.87% for bioplastic which using CMC fillers. The bioplastic that added Clay as filler can be degraded up to 100% in 7 days.
Effect of Chitosan, Clay, and CMC on Physicochemical Properties of Bioplastic from Banana Corm with Glycerol. Sugiharto, Agung; Syarifa, Adilla; Handayani, Nindita; Mahendra, Rizky
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 1 (2021): June 2021 [Nationally Accredited - Sinta 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i1.25323

Abstract

Bioplactic from banana corm and glycerol has been studied in this research. In addition, the physical chemical properties of it has been improved by adding chitosan, clay and CMC as filler and glycerol as plasticizer. Plastic that produced form organic material such as starch usually has poor properties in physical and mechanical. Composition variation of chitosan, clay and CMC as filler then combined by variation of glycerol as plasticizer have produced significant improve of the bioplastic physical properties. Properties of the bioplastic that studied in this research was focused to biodegradation, elongation, and tensile strength. The addition of fillers and plasticizers is carried out to produce a better bioplastics. This study used 3 variations of the filler composition : 4, 5, and 6 grams and 2 variations of the plasticizer composition: 1 ml and 2 ml. The bioplastics that produced were tested for tensile strength, elongation, and biodegradation of the soil for 7 days. The best tensile strength results is 8.43 MPa for bioplastic that using CMC fillers. On the other side, the best elongation percentage is 9.87% for bioplastic which using CMC fillers. The bioplastic that added Clay as filler can be degraded up to 100% in 7 days.
Effect of Ultrasonic Assisted on The Degree of Deacetylation of Chitosan Extracted from Portunus Pelagicus Buanasari, Buanasari; Sugiyo, Warlan; Rustaman, Heri
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 1 (2021): June 2021 [Nationally Accredited - SINTA 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i1.27648

Abstract

The technology for extracting chitin from shell and other materials needs to be continuously improved, including its conversion to chitosan. Chitosan is a biocompatible polymer, biodegradable, non-toxic, water-soluble at pH below 6.5, and it has protonated amino groups. The benefits of chitosan in industry, food and medicine make it necessary to fully study an efficient chitosan synthesis method and the results can be applied on an industrial scale. This study examined the effect of ultrasonic-assisted in increasing the degree of deacetylation of chitosan produced from Portunus pelagicus shell waste. The production process of chitosan goes through the stages of deproteination, demineralization and deacetylation. All these steps are ultrasound assisted processes with a frequency of 40 kHz through a digital ultrasonic cleaner. Ultrasonic-assisted chitin and chitosan were examined using FTIR spectrometry. The results showed that the ultrasonic method was able to increase the deacetylation degree of chitin with a value of 68.45±0.11% compared to 62.52±0.08% without ultrasonic. Application of ultrasonic assisted deacetylation gave a deacetylation degree of 85.35 ± 0.20%, higher than without ultrasonic 80.24 ± 0.19%.  Physically, ultrasonic-assisted chitosan is smoother and brighter in color. The ultrasonic-assisted chitosan manufacturing method could increase the deacetylation degree and produce high grade chitosan.
Effect of Ultrasonic Assisted on The Degree of Deacetylation of Chitosan Extracted from Portunus Pelagicus Buanasari, Buanasari; Sugiyo, Warlan; Rustaman, Heri
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 1 (2021): June 2021 [Nationally Accredited - Sinta 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i1.27648

Abstract

The technology for extracting chitin from shell and other materials needs to be continuously improved, including its conversion to chitosan. Chitosan is a biocompatible polymer, biodegradable, non-toxic, water-soluble at pH below 6.5, and it has protonated amino groups. The benefits of chitosan in industry, food and medicine make it necessary to fully study an efficient chitosan synthesis method and the results can be applied on an industrial scale. This study examined the effect of ultrasonic-assisted in increasing the degree of deacetylation of chitosan produced from Portunus pelagicus shell waste. The production process of chitosan goes through the stages of deproteination, demineralization and deacetylation. All these steps are ultrasound assisted processes with a frequency of 40 kHz through a digital ultrasonic cleaner. Ultrasonic-assisted chitin and chitosan were examined using FTIR spectrometry. The results showed that the ultrasonic method was able to increase the deacetylation degree of chitin with a value of 68.45±0.11% compared to 62.52±0.08% without ultrasonic. Application of ultrasonic assisted deacetylation gave a deacetylation degree of 85.35 ± 0.20%, higher than without ultrasonic 80.24 ± 0.19%.  Physically, ultrasonic-assisted chitosan is smoother and brighter in color. The ultrasonic-assisted chitosan manufacturing method could increase the deacetylation degree and produce high grade chitosan.
Purification of Used Cooking Oil by Alkali Neutralization and Bleaching of Bayah Natural Zeolite hendi, Endang Su; Rusdi, Rusdi; Alam, Bagja Nur; Nurbaeti, Siti
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 1 (2021): June 2021 [Nationally Accredited - SINTA 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i1.28636

Abstract

Cooking oil that is used repeatedly at high temperatures will reduce the quality of cooking oil. This will trigger the hydrolysis and oxidation processes that will change the characteristics of the oil, such as an increase in free fatty acid levels and peroxide numbers. Purification of used cooking oil can be carried out physically and chemically. The physical purification of oil is carried out by using adsorbents, while chemically purification process is carried out with an alkaline solution. Physically, natural materials such as zeolite can be used, where zeolite is a natural rock or mineral which chemically has a large surface area to be used in the adsorption process. Chemically with alkaline solution you can use sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In this study, used cooking oil is purified by three stages of the process, namely despicing, neutralization and bleaching to comply with the SNI quality standards. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum operating conditions for the purification of used cooking oil in accordance with the quality standards for cooking oil. based on the results obtained by adding a NaOH concentration of 19% in the neutralization process and a zeolite concentration of 90% can reduce the acid number value of 2.4 mg NaOH/gr, the peroxide number is 7 mekO2/kg, the color degradation of used cooking oil is 51.83%.
Purification of Used Cooking Oil by Alkali Neutralization and Bleaching of Bayah Natural Zeolite hendi, Endang Su; Rusdi, Rusdi; Alam, Bagja Nur; Nurbaeti, Siti
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 1 (2021): June 2021 [Nationally Accredited - Sinta 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i1.28636

Abstract

Cooking oil that is used repeatedly at high temperatures will reduce the quality of cooking oil. This will trigger the hydrolysis and oxidation processes that will change the characteristics of the oil, such as an increase in free fatty acid levels and peroxide numbers. Purification of used cooking oil can be carried out physically and chemically. The physical purification of oil is carried out by using adsorbents, while chemically purification process is carried out with an alkaline solution. Physically, natural materials such as zeolite can be used, where zeolite is a natural rock or mineral which chemically has a large surface area to be used in the adsorption process. Chemically with alkaline solution you can use sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In this study, used cooking oil is purified by three stages of the process, namely despicing, neutralization and bleaching to comply with the SNI quality standards. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum operating conditions for the purification of used cooking oil in accordance with the quality standards for cooking oil. based on the results obtained by adding a NaOH concentration of 19% in the neutralization process and a zeolite concentration of 90% can reduce the acid number value of 2.4 mg NaOH/gr, the peroxide number is 7 mekO2/kg, the color degradation of used cooking oil is 51.83%.
Vinasse-Based Slow-Release Organo-Mineral Fertilizer with Chitosan-Bentonite Matrix Qudus, Nur; Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Syamrizal, Zakky; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Hartanto, Dhoni
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 1 (2021): June 2021 [Nationally Accredited - SINTA 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i1.28829

Abstract

Controlling the release rate of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) for the soil fertilized can enhance the fertilizer efficiency and reduce the drawback for the environmental. In this work, a novel slow-release organo-mineral fertilizer was produced from the vinasse, which was blended with the NPK and the chitosan-bentonite matrix. The NPK used as additional nutrients source and the chitosan-bentonite matrix was performed as a barrier to prevent the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from a rapid dissolving. The NPK release rate was measured and analyzed after 3, 6, 9, and 12 days using the incubation method and leaching test. The most efficient release rate was obtained when a dry vinasse mixed with 9% NPK and 5% chitosan-bentonite matrix with the ratio of 8:2. The vinasse-based slow-release of organo-mineral fertilizer (SR-OMF) was compared to the vinasse organo-mineral fertilizer (OMF). The result indicated that the NPK release rate in the vinasse-based SR-OMF was lower compared to that in the vinasse OMF.
Vinasse-Based Slow-Release Organo-Mineral Fertilizer with Chitosan-Bentonite Matrix Qudus, Nur; Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Syamrizal, Zakky; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Hartanto, Dhoni
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 1 (2021): June 2021 [Nationally Accredited - Sinta 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i1.28829

Abstract

Controlling the release rate of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) for the soil fertilized can enhance the fertilizer efficiency and reduce the drawback for the environmental. In this work, a novel slow-release organo-mineral fertilizer was produced from the vinasse, which was blended with the NPK and the chitosan-bentonite matrix. The NPK used as additional nutrients source and the chitosan-bentonite matrix was performed as a barrier to prevent the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from a rapid dissolving. The NPK release rate was measured and analyzed after 3, 6, 9, and 12 days using the incubation method and leaching test. The most efficient release rate was obtained when a dry vinasse mixed with 9% NPK and 5% chitosan-bentonite matrix with the ratio of 8:2. The vinasse-based slow-release of organo-mineral fertilizer (SR-OMF) was compared to the vinasse organo-mineral fertilizer (OMF). The result indicated that the NPK release rate in the vinasse-based SR-OMF was lower compared to that in the vinasse OMF.
Potential of Energy Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Become Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) in Bali Province, Indonesia Suryawan, I Wayan Koko; Wijaya, I Made Wahyu; Sari, Novi Kartika; Septiariva, Iva Yenis; Zahra, Nurulbaiti Listyendah
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 1 (2021): June 2021 [Nationally Accredited - SINTA 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i1.29804

Abstract

The generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Bali has various environmental impacts. One of the updates on sustainable waste processing is the RDF treatment plant processing. Before carrying out the processing, MSW characterization is needed because each region has a diverse composition. The processing of MSW into RDF provides benefits for achieving MSW reduction targets, renewable energy use, and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. For this reason, this study was conducted to determine the potential of MSW in Bali as an alternative to renewable fuel and its potential to reduce GHG. MSW's potential calorific value as a raw material for RDF in Bali can reach 9.58 - 17.71 MJ/kg. The implementation of processing waste into RDF in pellets has shown a calorific value of ± 3904 - 4945 kkcal/kg. Implementing MSW processing into RDF in Bali can reduce GHG by 178 - 330 times compared to open dumping.
Potential of Energy Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Become Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) in Bali Province, Indonesia Suryawan, I Wayan Koko; Wijaya, I Made Wahyu; Sari, Novi Kartika; Septiariva, Iva Yenis; Zahra, Nurulbaiti Listyendah
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 1 (2021): June 2021 [Nationally Accredited - Sinta 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i1.29804

Abstract

The generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Bali has various environmental impacts. One of the updates on sustainable waste processing is the RDF treatment plant processing. Before carrying out the processing, MSW characterization is needed because each region has a diverse composition. The processing of MSW into RDF provides benefits for achieving MSW reduction targets, renewable energy use, and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. For this reason, this study was conducted to determine the potential of MSW in Bali as an alternative to renewable fuel and its potential to reduce GHG. MSW's potential calorific value as a raw material for RDF in Bali can reach 9.58 - 17.71 MJ/kg. The implementation of processing waste into RDF in pellets has shown a calorific value of ± 3904 - 4945 kkcal/kg. Implementing MSW processing into RDF in Bali can reduce GHG by 178 - 330 times compared to open dumping.

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