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Sanitasi, Higiene Perorangan, dan Pencemaran Tanah oleh Cacing pada Kecacingan pada Anak di Kelurahan Liliba, Kecamatan Oebobo Kota Kupang, Provinsi nusa Tenggara Timur Sinaga, Eni; Wanti, Wanti; Kusmiyati, Kusmiyati
Global Medical & Health Communication (GMHC) Vol 2, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Islam Bandung

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Abstract

Abstrak Penyakit kecacingan banyak ditemukan di daerah dengan kelembaban tinggi terutama pada kelompok masyarakat dengan higiene perorangan dan sanitasi lingkungan yang kurang baik. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui hubungan kondisi sanitasi, higiene perorangan, pencemaran tanah oleh cacing dengan kejadian kecacingan pada anak umur 1 – 5 tahun di Kelurahan Liliba, Kecamatan Oebobo Kota Kupang, Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Penelitian observasional dengan rancangan cross sectional study dilakukan pada Mei- November 2012. Sampel penelitian 50 anak usia 1–5 tahun sebanyak 50 orang yang diambil secara random sampling. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji chi kuadrat (X2) dengan program statistical product and service solution (SPSS). Prevalensi kecacingan pada anak usia 1-5tahun di Kelurahan Liliba adalah 38%. Hasil Uji chi kuadrat menunjukkan hanya ada satu variabel yang berhubungan dengan kejadian kecacingan di Liliba yaitu higiene perorangan (p=0,005). Variabel yang tidak berhubungan dengan kejadian kecacingan pada anak 1 – 5 tahun di Liliba yaitu kondisi sarana air bersih (p=0,07), kondisi jamban (p=0,128), dan pencemaran tanah oleh cacing (p=0,309). Penelitian ini membuktikan ada hubungan bermakna antara higiene perorangan dan kejadian kecacingan, sehingga diharapkan orangtua lebih memperhatikan higiene perorangan anaknya seperti memotong kuku, mencuci tangan setelah bermain dan sebelum makan, mencuci tangan setelah buang air besar dan memberikan alas kaki saat bermain. Dinkes Kota dan Puskesmas khususnya secara periodic setiap 6 bulan sekali diharapkan melakukan tindakan pencegahan dan penanggulangan kecacingan dengan penyuluhan dan pemberian obat cacing kepada anak usia 1 – 5 tahun. Kata kunci: Higiene perorangan, kecacingan, kondisi lingkungan Sanitation, Personal Hygiene, and Helminth Contamination of Helminth infectionin Children at Liliba Subdistrict, Oebobo Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province Abstract Helminth infection was found especially in the area with high humidity and in the community with bad personal higiene and inadequate sanitation. The objective of this study is to describe the relation between sanitation, personal hygiene, helminth contamination in the soil and helminth infection in children 1 – 5 years old in Liliba subdistrict Oebobo Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province. This was an observational study with cross sectional approach was done on May to November 2012. A systematic random sampling  of 50 children  1 – 5 years old involved in this study. Analysis using statistical product and servicesolution (SPSS) program ver 17 was done with chi square (X2). The results showed that the prevalence of helminth infection on children 1 – 5 years old was 38%. One variable showed significant relationship with helminth infection is personal hygiene with p=0.005 while the availability of clean water, sanitation and soil contamination showed no significant relationship with p=0.07; p=0.128 and p=0.309 respectivelly. The study emphasized the need for personal hygiene that encouraged parents to help children exercise personal hygiene better. Several activities such as nail cutting, washing hands after playing and before eating, washing hands after defecating and using sandals for feet protections need to be promoted. Local Health department need to prevent the infection by promoting healthy living and distribute preventive drug especially for children 1-5 years old. Key words: Helminth infection, personal hygiene, sanitation, children. 
Expression of Catalase and Malondialdehyde Levels in Silicon Dioxyde-exposed Lung Tissue of Mice Treated with Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract Keman, Soedjajadi; Kusmiyati, Kusmiyati; Amin, Muhammad; Suwarno, Suwarno
Health Notions Vol 2 No 3 (2018): March 2018
Publisher : Humanistic Network for Science and Technology (Address: Cemara street 25, Ds/Kec Sukorejo, Ponorogo, East Java, Indonesia 63453)

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Abstract

Silica particle such as silicon dioxide (SiO2), is considered as a hazardous and cytotoxic particle. Silica particle exposure leads to oxidative stress in lung tissue. Moringa oleifera is a plant with potential antioxidant compounds. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of M. oleifera leaves extract (MLE) on expression of catalase enzyme and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in lung tissue of mice exposed to silica particles. This study was an experimental study with randomized posttest-only control group design using 30 male Balb/c strain mice, 8-10 weeks of age, 20-30 g body weight (BW), which were randomly divided into five groups. Group 1 was the negative control group, group 2 was exposed to SiO2 particle and set as the positive control group, group 3 was treated with MLE 2 mg/20 g BW, group 4 was treated with MLE 5 mg/20 g BW, and group 5 was treated with MLE 8 mg/20 g BW. After 90 days, mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the lung tissues were examined.  Study results showed that expression of catalase in lung tissues of MLE-treated group was higher than that of positive control group, but not statistically significant. There was a significant difference of MDA level in lung tissue among groups. MDA level of groups treated with MLE 2 mg/20 g BW and 5 mg/20 g BW was lower than that of control group, while group treated with MLE 8 mg/20 g BW showed higher MDA level than control group (One Way ANOVA, p<0.05). It is concluded that administration of MLE indicates to prevent SiO2 inducedoxidative stress in lung tissue of Balb/c mice.    Keywords: Antioxidant, Catalase, Malondialdehyde, Moringa oleifera, Silicon dioxyde 
KEBIASAAN CUCI TANGAN, KONDISI FASILITAS CUCI TANGAN DAN KEBERADAAN E. COLI PADA TANGAN PENJAMAH MAKANAN DI RUMAH MAKAN DALAM WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS OEBOBO KUPANG TAHUN 2012 KUSMIYATI, KUSMIYATI; SINAGA, ENNI ROSIDA; WANTI, WANTI
JURNAL INFO KESEHATAN Vol 11 No 2 (2013): JURNAL INFO KESEHATAN
Publisher : Poltekkes Kemenkes Kupang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (290.052 KB) | DOI: 10.31965/infokes.v11i2.27

Abstract

Food is needed for our body as energy source. Food also as source of food borne diseases if it is untreatment well. Here, food handler is important to keep the food higyene. This research aim is to describe the hand washing habit, hand washing facility and the present of E. coli at the food handler’s hands in Oebobo Primary Health Center. This discriptive research use cros sectional study with 50 restorants as samples, and 50 food handler, also 50 hand washing facility as unit sample. This research find only 30% food handler washed their hands more than 10 time a day, and almost always using soap when they did it. Many food handlers wash their hands incorrectly. Many restorant just have 1 hand washing facility, 62% the location separate between staf and consumen, only 58% with run water. This research also find there is E. coli at 16% food handlers’s hand.
Pengaruh Paparan Pencemar Udara Terhadap Stres Oksidatif: Sistematik Review Kusmiyati Kusmiyati; Norma Tiku Kambuno; Pius Selasa; Ferry William Frangky Waangsir
Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 20, No 3 (2022): July 2022
Publisher : School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro Univer

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/jil.20.3.628-636

Abstract

Pencemaran udara mempengaruhi kualitas lingkungan dan kesehatan masyarakat.  Pencemar udara dapat menyebabkan perubahan molekul dalam tubuh sebagai penanda dini gangguan kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memperoleh gambaran tentang pengaruh pencemar udara terhadap stres oksidatif. Jenis penelitian adalah sistematik review dari artikel penelitian yang dilakukan sebelumnya. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada Apri-Mei 2021. Pencarian literature dilakukan melalui data base Science Direct pada periode publikasi 2017-2021.  Kata kunci yang digunakan adalah “air pollutant” OR “oxidative stress” AND “air pollution” OR “oxidative stress”.   Artikel yang diperoleh menggunakan kata kunci dan memenuhi kriteria inklusi selanjutnya dilakukan penilaian kelayakan menggunakan The JBI Critical Appraisal.  Dari menilaian kelayakan diperoleh 15 artikel dari data base Science Direct yang selanjutnya ditelaah. Hasil pdari penelusuran literature diketahui jenis pencemar udara antara lain PM2,5, NO2, Ozon, partikulat, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, dan CO, PM udara ambien, abu vulkanik, bahan bakar dan sebagainya. Paparan polutan udara dapat menyebabkan stress oksidatif dalam berbagai penanda antara lain peningkatan produksi spesies oksigen reaktif, penurunan antioksidan, 8-OHDG.  Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa pajanan pencemar udara menyebabkan perubahan pada penanda biologis stress oksidatif yang merupakan indikasi dini adanya gangguan kesehatan sebagai dampak dari pencemar udara.  Perlu upaya pengendalian pencemaran udara agar tidak menimbulkan dampak negatif pada manusia.ABSTRACTAir pollution had an impact on environmental quality and public health. Air pollutants could cause molecular changes in the body as an early marker of health problems. The purpose of this study was to obtain an overview of the effect of air pollutants on oxidative stress. This study was a systematic review of previous research articles. The research was carried out in April-May 2021. The literature search was carried out through the Science Direct database in the 2017-2021 publication period. The keywords used were “air pollutant” OR “oxidative stress” AND “air pollution” OR “oxidative stress”. Articles obtained using keywords and meeting the inclusion criteria were then assessed for feasibility using The JBI Critical Appraisal. From the feasibility assessment, 15 articles were obtained which were then reviewed. The results of a literature search showed that the types of air pollutants include PM2.5, NO2, Ozone, particulates, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and CO, ambient air PM, volcanic ash, fuel and so on. Exposure to air pollutants caused oxidative stress in various markers, including increased production of reactive oxygen species, decreased antioxidants, 8-OHDG. The conclusion of this study is that exposure to air pollutants causes changes in biological markers of oxidative stress which is an early indication of health problems as a result of air pollutants. Efforts are needed to control air pollution so that it does not have a negative impact on humans.
The Knowledge on HIV/AIDS among High School Student and University Student in Kupang Municipality 2011 Wanti Wanti; Kusmiyati Kusmiyati; B Widyaningrum
Jurnal LINK Vol 8, No 2 (2012): Mei 2012
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat, Poltekkes Kemenkes Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4034.669 KB) | DOI: 10.31983/link.v8i2.297

Abstract

Pendekatan Psikososial, Intervensi Fisik, Dan Perilaku Kognitif Dalam Desain Pembelajaran Pendidikan Jasmani Bagi Anak Dengan Retardasi Mental Kusmiyati Kusmiyati
Movement and Education Vol. 2 No. 1 (2021)
Publisher : Prodi Pendidikan Jasmani Kesehatan dan Rekreasi Universitas Muhammadiyah Sukabumi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (133.382 KB) | DOI: 10.37150/mae.v2i1.1426

Abstract

Abstrak Artikel ini merupakan sebuah tulisan yang mencoba membahas tentang: (1) pengertian anak retardasi mental, (2) kharakteristik anak retardasi mental, (3) kendala-kendala anak retardasi mental, serta (4) pendekatan pembelajaran yang dapat diaplikasikan untuk anak retardasi mental agar menjadi anak yang mandiri dalam hidupnya serta mampu bersosialisasi dan bermasyarakat. Retardasi mental atau keterbelakangan mental menunjuk pada penejelasan khusus kepada anak-anak yang memiliki tingkat intelegensi di bawah rata-rata. Terdapat beberapa istilah lain dari retardasi mental ini, seperti: mentally retarded, mental defective, dan lain sebagainya. Retadasi mental terjadi ditandai dengan adanya keterbelakangan mental yang dibawah rata-rata. Hal ini timbul selama periode pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak sejak masih dalam kandungan. Keterbelakangan mental juga terjadi karena kelemahan dalam proses adaptasi dengan lingkungan selama masa tumbuh kembang.
Bioethanol Production from Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch as Raw Materials (Effect of CaCl 2 Addition and Saccharification Time) Kusmiyati, Kusmiyati; Mahmudi, Ali
Makara Journal of Technology Vol. 18, No. 1
Publisher : UI Scholars Hub

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Abstract

Bioethanol produced from agricultural sources is one alternative energy that has been developed to substitute for petroleum. However, the use of food sources such as corn and cassava to produce bioethanol still face obstacles that lead to the scarcity of food and an increase in food prices. The aim of this study was to produce bioethanol from sorghum and iles-iles, which are not used by humans as food, especially in Indonesia. For both materials, the variables studied were saccharification time (4, 8, 24, and 48 h) and concentration of CaCl2 added to the liquefaction slurry (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/L). The bioethanol was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, which consists of liquefaction usinga-amylase at 1.6% v/w (t = 1 h; T = 95-100 °C; pH 6) and saccharification of the liquefaction slurry by using b- amylase at 3.2% v/w (t = various; T = 60 °C; pH 5) and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (t = 120 hours; pH 4, 5; yeast 5g). The best conditions were obtained for sorghum at saccharification t = 24 h, which resulted in the highest ethanol yield, 91.5 g/L, and for iles-iles at t = 48 h, which yielded 107.1 g/L. The optimum amount of CaCl2 to be added was 200mg/L, which resulted in the highest ethanol yield, 98.5 g/L and 92.4 g/L for sorghum and iles-iles, respectively. This results shows that sorghum and iles-iles are promising raw materials for the production of bioethanol, since they produce it in large amounts.
Komunitas Echinodermata di kawasan intertidal Pantai Mandalika Pulau Lombok, Indonesia Imam Bachtiar; I Wayan Merta; Kusmiyati Kusmiyati; AR Syachruddin
Depik Vol 9, No 2 (2020): August 2020
Publisher : Faculty of Marine and Fisheries, Universitas Syiah Kuala

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (654.148 KB) | DOI: 10.13170/depik.9.2.13582

Abstract

Echinoderm community was studied at the Mandalika Beach which is the main habitat of nyale worms in the southern coast of Lombok Island, from July to September 2017. The aim of study was to describe community structure of Echinoderm fauna and population structure of predominant species. Data on species richness and its abundance were collected using transect-quadrate methods. Five transects were laid haphazardly seaward that may represent the whole reef flat with about 200 m length and 100 m wide.  On every 10 meter along the transect length a 5x1 m2 quadrate was made, that overall there were 44 quadrates. The results showed that only eight species of Echinoderms found in the quadrate samples, i.e. sea urchin Echinometra mathaei (Echinoidea), and brittle stars, Ophiocoma scolopendrina, O. echinata, O. erinaceus, Ophiomastix annulosa and Ophioderma sp. (Ophiuroidea). Two other Echinoidea were also found outside the quadrates, i.e. Echinothrix calamaris and Diadema setosum. Simpson diversity index (D) was 1,243, eveness index (E) was 4,023, Shanon-Winner diversity index (H) was 0,430 and equatibility index (J) was 0,267. Sea urchin E. mathaei was the most predominant population (89,38% of total composition) with average abundance 11,87±22,37 individual m2. Brittle star O. scolopendrina come the second predominant population (7,31%) with average abundance 0,86±2,43 individual m2. The other four brittle stars had very low proportion (2%) and low abundance ( 0,20  individual m2). Population stucture showed that these two populations mostly consisted of reproductive members. Ecological interactions of these two predominant Echinoderms should be studied in more detail on interactions among of the Echinoderms and nyale worms. Keywords: Ophiocoma, Echinometra, Nyale, Lombok Tengah, population structure ABSTRAKPenelitian komunitas Echinodermata dilakukan di Pantai Mandalika yang menjadi habitat utama cacing nyale, pada bulan Juli-September 2017. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan struktur komunitas Echinodermata dan struktur populasi spesies yang dominan. Data kekayaan spesies dan kelimpahan diambil dengan metode transek kuadrat. Lima transek diletakkan tersebar ke arah laut pada pantai yang panjangnya sekitar 200 m dan lebar 100 m tersebut. Setiap titik 10 meter pada transek dibuat kuadrat ukuran 5 m2, dengan jumlah kuadrat sampel seluruhnya 44 kuadrat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komunitas Echinodermata mempunyai kekayaan spesies yang rendah di Pantai Mandalika. Organisme Echinodermata yang dijumpai hanya 8 (delapan) spesies, yaitu landak laut Echinometra mathaei (Echinoidea), serta lima jenis bintang mengular, Ophiocoma scolopendrina, O. echinata, O. erinaceus, Ophiomastix annulosa dan Ophioderma sp. (Ophiuroidea). Di luar kuadrat tercatat dua jenis landak laut lainnya, yaitu Echinothrix calamaris dan Diadema setosum, dengan kelimpahan yang sangat rendah. Indeks-indeks komunitas pada umumnya rendah. Indeks diversitas Simpson (D) 1,243, indeks keseragaman (E) 4,023, indeks keanekaragaman spesies Shanon-Winner (H) 0,430 dan indeks kesetaraan (J) 0,267. Landak laut E. mathaei sangat dominan (89,38%) dengan kelimpahan rata-rata 11,87±22,37 individu m-2 di dalam komposisi komunitas Echinodermata. Bintang mengular O. scolopendrina menempati urutan dominansi kedua (7,31%) dengan kelimpahan rata-rata 0,86±2,43 individu m-2, sedangkan empat bintang mengular lainnya mempunyai proporsi kurang dari 2% dan kelimpahan rata-rata kurang dari 0,20  individu m-2. Struktur populasi E. mathaei dan O. scolopendrina menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar anggota populasi mempunyai ukuran reproduktif. Kehadiran hewan Echinodermata tersebut di habitat cacing nyale (Eunicidae, Polychaeta) menuntut penelitian lanjutan tentang peran ekologis dari masing-masing hewan Echinodermata dan interaksinya dengan cacing nyale.Kata kunci: Ophiocoma, Echinometra, Nyale, Lombok Tengah, Struktur populasi