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STATUS KESEHATAN, INFLAMASI, DAN STATUS GIZI ANAK UMUR 0,5 – 12,9 TAHUN DI INDONESIA Effendi, Rustan; Sandjaja, nFN; Harahap, Heryudarini
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 36, No 2 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.36457/gizindo.v36i2.137

Abstract

Penyakit infeksi dan konsumsi makanan merupakan penyebab langsung kurang gizi pada anak-anak yang masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat Indonesia. Dalam Studi SEANUTS dikumpulkan 9 penyakit infeksi, sebagian besar merupakan 10 penyakit utama penyebab kematian dan kesakitan, dengan wawancara adanya penyakit dalam waktu 1, 6, atau 12 bulan terakhir sesuai jenis penyakitnya baik yang didiagnosa tenaga kesehatan ataupun gejala penyakit. Sampel adalah anak umur 0,5-12,9 tahun dari 48 kabupaten/kota. Hasil studi menunjukkan prevalensi tertinggi diagnosa adalah ISPA (11,8-27,7%) dan diare (5,2-22,4%). Sedangkan 7 penyakit lainnya yaitu pneumonia, demam tifoid, malaria, campak, tuberkulosis paru, demam berdarah, dan hepatitis dengan prevalensi di bawah 5 persen. Pada kelompok umur anak yang lebih muda ditemukan prevalensi penyakit ISPA dan diare lebih tinggi dibandingkan pada kelompok umur di atasnya. Kemudian, prevalensi lebih tinggi di perdesaan dibanding perkotaan. Pada kelompok anak yang menderita lebih banyak penyakit ditemukan prevalensi kurang gizi (underweight) yang lebih tinggi. Kadar CRP di atas normal sebagai biomarker inflamasi terjadi pada 4,2-10,4 persen anak ABSTRACTHEALTH STATUS, INFLAMATION, AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF INDONESIAN CHILDREN 0.5 – 12,9 YEARS OLDInfection and dietary intake are directly associated with malnutrition. Both are still major public health problems among children in Indonesia. SEANUTS showed that 9 types of infections are included in the 10 leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children 0.5-12.9 year old. The data collected through interview comprised of diagnosed or apparent symptoms of different types of diseases over previous 1, 6, or 12 months. The results showed high period prevalence of ARI (11.8-27.7%) and diarrhoea (5.2-22.4%). The prevalence of 7 other diseases (pneumonia, thypoid fever, malaria, measles, tuberculosis, dengue hemmoraghic fever, and hepatitis) was below 5 percent. The prevalence of ARI and diarrhrea was higher in younger children than older children, and the prevalence was higher in rural compared to urban areas. Elevated CRP as a sign of inflammation was found in 4.2-10.4 percent children. The prevalence of underweight was higher among children suffering more diseases compared to healthy children.Keywords: health status, inflammation, infectious diseases, nutritional status
DESAIN PENELITIAN SOUTH-EAST ASIAN NUTRITION SURVEY (SEANUTS) DI INDONESIA Sandjaja, nFN; Budiman, Basuki; Harahap, Heryudarini; Ernawati, Fitrah; Soekatri, Moesijanti; Widodo, Yekti; Sumedi, Edith; Sofia, Gustina; Effendi, Rustan; Syarief, Hidayat; Minarto, nFN
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 36, No 2 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.36457/gizindo.v36i2.136

Abstract

South-East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) merupakan multi-center study yang dilakukan di Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand dan Vietnam yang diprakarsai oleh FrieslandCampina Belanda tahun 2011 untuk mengetahui besaran masalah gizi utama di masing-masing negara. SEANUTS merupakan studi komprehensif gizi yang mengumpulkan data antropometri gizi (berat, tinggi badan, tinggi duduk, lapisan lemak bawah kulit, lingkaran lengan atas, lebar lengan tangan, siku, lutut), biokimia gizi (vitamin A, D, Hb, ferritin, DHA), iodium urine, perkembangan mental/ kognitif dan motorik, aktivitas fisik, kualitas tulang, konsumsi makanan, dan morbiditas. Tulisan ini menjelaskan desain umum SEANUTS. Desain SEANUTS adalah studi potong lintang (cross-sectional). Sampel adalah anak umur 0,5-12,9 tahun sebanyak 7211 anak yang dipilih dengan metode two-stage randomized cluster sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara, pengamatan, pengukuran, dan pemeriksaan sesuai dengan data yang dikumpulkan. Enumerator terlatih mengumpulkan data morbiditas, antropometri, aktivitas fisik, kualitas tulang, perkembangan mental dan kognisi, konsumsi makanan, urin. Pemeriksaan klinis oleh tenaga medis setempat, pengambilan darah oleh plebotomis. Tulisan-tulisan dalam nomor majalah ini berisi hasil deskriptif tentang besaran masalah gizi makro dan mikro di Indonesia, konsumsi makanan, aktivitas fisik, dan perkembangan mental, sedangkan tulisan ini menjelaskan desain umum SEANUTS
POLA AKTIVITAS FISIK ANAK USIA 6,0–12,9 TAHUN DI INDONESIA Harahap, Heryudarini; Sandjaja, nFN; Nur Cahyo, Karlina
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 36, No 2 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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Abstract

Analisis ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran tentang pola aktivitas fisik anak usia 6–12 tahun di Indonesia menurut jenis kelamin, tempat tinggal dan status sosial ekonomi dengan menggunakan data SEANUTS yang dikumpulkan pada tahun 2011. Aktivitas fisik dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan pedometer. Pedometer dipasang di pinggang anak selama dua hari berturut-turut. Nilai rata-rata dari jumlah langkah yang dihasilkan anak selama dua hari disebut sebagai aktivitas fisik yang dikategorikan menjadi 1) aktif ≥ 15.000 dan 2) tidak aktif <15.000 langkah untuk anak laki-laki dan 1) aktif ≥ 12.000 dan 2) tidak aktif < 12.000 langkah untuk anak perempuan. Screen time adalah jumlah waktu anak berada di depan TV/komputer/play station per hari yang dikategorikan < 2 jam atau ≥ 2 jam per hari. Lebih dari setengah (57,3%) anak Indonesia dikategorikan tidak aktif dan berada di depan TV/komputer/PS ≥ 2 jam per hari (55,2%). Proporsi anak yang tidak aktif lebih banyak pada anak laki-laki (62,8%) dibanding anak perempuan (52,3%), anak dari ibu dengan pendidikan tinggi (61,0%) dibanding anak dari ibu dengan pendidikan rendah (55,7%), dan anak dari ayah dengan pekerjaan tetap (61,1%) dibanding anak dari ayah dengan pekerjaan tidak tetap (56,1%). Proporsi screen time anak ≥ 2 jam per hari lebih besar pada anak yang tinggal di perkotaan (58,9%) dibanding pada anak yang tinggal di perdesaan (51,6%), dan anak dari sosial ekonomi tinggi (67,4%) lebih besar dari anak dari sosial ekonomi rendah (40,7%). ABSTRACTPHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERN OF 6.0 – 12.9 YEARS OLD INDONESIAN CHILDRENThe aimed of this study was to assess the physical activity patterns of 6 -12 years old Indonesian children according to sex, residence, and social economic status. The data of SEANUTS 2011 was analyzed. Physical activity (PA) was measured directly using pedometers for 2 consecutive days. Daily PA was defined as the average of number steps from two consecutive days, then PA was categorized into two groups those were active (average number of steps ≥ 15.000 for boys or and ≥ 12.000 for girls) and inactive (average number of steps <15,000 for boys or <12000 steps/day for girls). Screen time was the amount of time used by children interacted with the TV/computer/play station per day. Then it was categorized as <2 hours or ≥ 2 hours per day. More than half (57.3%) of Indonesian children was categorized as inactive and screen time ≥ 2 hours per day (55.2%). The proportion of inactive children was higher in boys (62,8%) than girls (52,3%), children from high educated mothers more active (61,0%) than children from low educated mothers (55,7%), and children who had father with fix job more active (61,1%) than children who had father with temporary job. The screen time proportion ≥ 2 hours per day was higher in urban children (58,9%) than rural children (51,6%), and children from high socio economic status (SES) (64,6%) than from low SES (40,7%).
PENGGUNAAN BERBAGAI CUT-OFF INDEKS MASSA TUBUH SEBAGAI INDIKATOR OBESITAS TERKAIT PENYAKIT DEGENERATIF DI INDONESIA Harahap, Heryudarini; Widodo, Yekti; Mulyati, Sri
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 28, No 2 (2005): September 2005
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Abstract

DETERMINING CUT-OFF POINTS OF BODY MASS INDEX FOR OBESITY ASSOCIATED WITH DEGENERATIVE DISEASES IN INDONESIAObesity now is recognized as a public health problem. Changing diets and decreasing physical activity explain the increasing prevalence of obesity. Method that is commonly used for indentifying obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI). At present, there has been a growing debate on different BMI cut-off points for different ethnic groups, in particular for Asian population. A different cut-off point is needed due to evidence associated with BMI, percentage of body fat, and body fat distribution that differ across population. Therefore, health risks may incrase even below the cutoff point of 25 kg/m2 that now categorized as overweight. The objective of the study was to determine BMI cut-off points and their relationship with degenerative diseases. Data was originally taken from Health National Household Health Survei (SKRT) in 2004. The population were those who were aged 25 to 65 years old. The variable analysed statistically were age, sex, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The analysis used in this study was univariate and bivariate tables to answer the objective. Based on WHO cut-off point, obesity was in BMI =25 kg/m2, and the prevalence of being hypertension, DM and hyperkolestrolemia as risks were 52.3%, 12,7% and 1,6% respectively. However, based on International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off in which pre obesity was started on BMI 23 kg/m2, the prevalence of each risk was consecutively 40,1%; 11,4% and 0,6%. Respectively cut-off used by Ministry of Health in obesity was 25 kg/m2 with prevalence for each risk was 50.2%, 11.8% and 1.5% respectively. Sensitivity (Se) and Specificity (Sp) were around 22.0-23.0 for all subjects based on sex, age, and education. The highest Se and Sp was found on hypercholesterol. Logistic regresion analysis showed that the increasing of BMI cut-off of 23 to 25 would be followed by the increase of the risk of hypercholesterol up to 0.6 points. On the other hand, decreasing BMI from > 25 to < 25 in USA may reduce 13% co-morbidity disease associated to obesity. In conclusion this study showed that on BMI =23.5 was related to degenerative diseases. However, the cut-off point still need to be examined in relation to the incidence of degenative diseases.Key Word: body mass index, cut-off point, degenerative diseases
PENGEMBANGAN ALAT SKRINING UNTUK HIPERTENSI Harahap, Heryudarini; Widodo, Yekti; Muljati, Sri; Triwinarto, Agus; Effendi, Imam
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 33, No 2 (2010): September 2010
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Abstract

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREENING TOOL FOR HYPERTENSIONThe increasing prevalence of hypertension is an important public health problem contributing to significant excess disease and mortality. The risk factors of high blood pressure were smoking, sex, age, consumption, activity, obesity, and heredity. Studies showed that subjects didn’t aware about their blood pressure as well as subjects’ knowledge about risk and symptom of hypertension was not good. Hypertension prevention can be done by giving screening tools to detect the blood pressure as well asgiving information about risk and symptom of hypertension. The objective of the study was to develop screening tool to detect hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Bogor, North Jakarta and Tangerang district. Blood pressure was collected using spyhgmanometer. The JNC 7 was used to classify of hypertension. Screening tool and leaflet was developed based on the result of Basic Health Research data set as well as literature study. The study had three activities that were focus group discussion, validity and reliability, as well as screening tool trial. Results: Validity test showed that over 17 questions only 6 questions were valid (p<0,05, r = 0,176). After re-construction of screening tool questions then validity test was done again. Over 15 questions, 12 was valid (p<0,05, r = 0,07).Eventhough 3 questions were not valid that questions were still included in that screening tools. Reliabilty of screening tool was realiable (α Cronbach’s = 0.586). The sensitivity (Se) and Specificity (Sp) of subjects that had been have 7 scores or higher was had Se 61.6 and 64.1 Sp respectively. Conclusion: This study implies that hypertension screening tool can be used as screening tool to detect hypertension.Keywords: hypertension, obesity, sensitivity, screening tool, specificity
KEPADATAN TULANG, AKTIVITAS FISIK DAN KONSUMSI MAKANAN BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN KEJADIAN STUNTING PADA ANAK USIA 6 – 12 TAHUN Harahap, Heryudarini; Sandjaja, nFN; Soekatri, Moesijanti
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 38, No 1 (2015): Maret 2015
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Abstract

Studi ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan antara kepadatan tulang, aktivitas fisik, dan konsumsi makanan dengan kejadian stunting. Analisis menggunakan data anak usia 6.0 – 12.9 tahun (n=192) dari South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) tahun 2011.Kepadatan tulang diukur dengan metoda dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), yang dikategorikan menjadi rendah (≤ -2 SD) dan normal (> 2 SD). Aktivitas fisik dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan pedometer. Aktivitas fisik yang dikategorikan menjadi rendah (< 11,636 untuk laki-laki dan < 10,311 langkah untuk perempuan), sedang (11,636 – 15,891 langkah untuk laki-laki dan 10,311 – 14,070 langkah untuk perempuan) dan tinggi ( > 15,891 langkah untuk laki-laki dan > 14,070 langkah untuk perempuan). Konsumsi makanan dikumpulkan dengan cara 24 hours dietary recall. Konsumsi protein dikategorikan menjadi rendah (< 80% RDA) dan normal (≥ 80% RDA).  Logistic regression analysis digunakan untuk melihat hubungan antara variabel dependen dan independen. Hasil studi menunjukkan anak dengan kepadatan tulang rendah berisiko untuk menjadi stunting 5,3 kali (OR = 5,325 ; CI= 1,075 – 26,387) dibandingkan dengan anak kepadatan tulang normal.  Aktivitas fisik anak sedang (OR = 0,139 ; CI = 0,037 – 0,521) merupakan faktor protektif untuk kejadian stunting dibandingkan dengan aktivitas tinggi. Anak dengan konsumsi protein <80% dari angka kecukupan gizi (AKG) yang dianjurkan berisiko untuk menjadi stunting 6,4 kali (OR = 6,448 ; CI = 1,756 – 23,672) dibandingkan anak dengan konsumsi protein ≥80%. Selain akibat kekurangan konsumsi protein, perhatian juga perlu diberikan kepada aktivitas fisik dan kepadatan tulang anak untuk mencegah stunting dan akibat jangka panjangnya.ABSTRACT BONE MINERAL DENSITY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AND DIETARY INTAKES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH STUNTING IN 6-12 YEARS OLD CHILDREN This study assessed the association of stunting in schoolage children (6-12 year old) with bone mineral density (BMD), physical activity (PA), and dietary intakes. Data on 6-12 year old children (n=192) from the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) 2011. BMD was measured using DXA, which was categorized into low (≤-2 SD) and normal ( > -2 SD). Physical activity (PA) was measured using pedometers. PA was categorized into low (< 11,636 steps for boys and < 10,311 steps for girls), moderate (11,636 – 15,891 steps for boys and 10,311 – 14,070 steps for girls) and high ( > 15,891 steps for boys and 14,070 steps for girls). Dietary data was collected by 24 hours dietary recall. Protein consumption is categorized into low (< 80% RDA) and normal (≥ 80% RDA). Logistic regression analysis was used to test the association. The results showed that children with low bone density(≤ -2 SD) had a 5.3 times higher risk to be stunted (OR =5.325; 95% CI=1.075 to 26.387) than children with normal bone density. Moderate physicial activity was a protective factor for stunting (OR =0.139; 95% CI=0.037 to 0.521) than children with high physical activity. Children who consumed <80% of RDA of protein had a higher risk of being stunted (OR =6.448; 95% CI=1.756 to 23.672) than children with protein intake ≥80%.Therefore, next to improving protein intake, attention also is given to physical activity and bone mineral density to prevent stunting and its long-term impact.Keywords: stunting, bone mineral density, physical activity
DESAIN PENELITIAN SOUTH-EAST ASIAN NUTRITION SURVEY (SEANUTS) DI INDONESIA Sandjaja, nFN; Budiman, Basuki; Harahap, Heryudarini; Ernawati, Fitrah; Soekatri, Moesijanti; Widodo, Yekti; Sumedi, Edith; Sofia, Gustina; Effendi, Rustan; Syarief, Hidayat; Minarto, nFN
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 36, No 2 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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Abstract

South-East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) merupakan multi-center study yang dilakukan di Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand dan Vietnam yang diprakarsai oleh FrieslandCampina Belanda tahun 2011 untuk mengetahui besaran masalah gizi utama di masing-masing negara. SEANUTS merupakan studi komprehensif gizi yang mengumpulkan data antropometri gizi (berat, tinggi badan, tinggi duduk, lapisan lemak bawah kulit, lingkaran lengan atas, lebar lengan tangan, siku, lutut), biokimia gizi (vitamin A, D, Hb, ferritin, DHA), iodium urine, perkembangan mental/ kognitif dan motorik, aktivitas fisik, kualitas tulang, konsumsi makanan, dan morbiditas. Tulisan ini menjelaskan desain umum SEANUTS. Desain SEANUTS adalah studi potong lintang (cross-sectional). Sampel adalah anak umur 0,5-12,9 tahun sebanyak 7211 anak yang dipilih dengan metode two-stage randomized cluster sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara, pengamatan, pengukuran, dan pemeriksaan sesuai dengan data yang dikumpulkan. Enumerator terlatih mengumpulkan data morbiditas, antropometri, aktivitas fisik, kualitas tulang, perkembangan mental dan kognisi, konsumsi makanan, urin. Pemeriksaan klinis oleh tenaga medis setempat, pengambilan darah oleh plebotomis. Tulisan-tulisan dalam nomor majalah ini berisi hasil deskriptif tentang besaran masalah gizi makro dan mikro di Indonesia, konsumsi makanan, aktivitas fisik, dan perkembangan mental, sedangkan tulisan ini menjelaskan desain umum SEANUTS
GANGGUAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN PERKEMBANGAN PADA ANAK USIA 0,5-1,9 TAHUN TERKAIT DENGAN ASUPAN MAKANAN DAN PENGASUHAN YANG KURANG Harahap, Heryudarini; Budiman, Basuki; Widodo, Yekti
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 41, No 1 (2018): Maret 2018
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Abstract

Growth and development of children affected by various risk factors include malnutrition, poverty, and a less stimulated home environment. The objective of this analysis was to calculate the proportion of growth and development disorder and to determine the association of food intake and care for children with children’s growth and development. Samples were 247 children aged of 0.5-1.9 years who participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) in 2011. Growth was assesed by height for age in Z-score of WHO standard. Development was measured using Denver II test. Children were divided into four groups: 1).normal height with normal development (NH-ND); 2).stunting with normal development (S-ND), 3).normal height with suspected underdevelopment (NH-SD), and 4).stunting with suspected underdevelopment (S-SD). Protein intake was divided into adequate (≥80% RDA) and inadequate (<80% RDA). Care for children was measured by the length of carrying them, categorized into ≤2 hours or >2 hours. Socio-economic status was categorized into low and high based on quintile. Age was categorized into 0.5–0.9 years and 1.0–1.9 years. Data analysis employed multi-nomial logistic regression. Proportions of NH-SD, S-ND, NH-SD and S-SD were 53.6%, 17.9%, 19.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. S-ND was associated with protein intake (OR=2.2;95%CI:1.1-4.6), aged 1.0–1.9 years (OR=6.9: 95%CI:2.2-22.1). NH-SD was associated with aged 1–1.9 years (OR=0.3; 95%CI:0.1-0.6). S-SD was associated with inadequate protein intake (OR=3.1; 95%CI:1.2-8.2), low SES and duration of carrying them more than 2 hours (OR=6.9; 95%CI:2.5-19.0). Protein intake, SES and care for children were risk factors for growth and development of children.ABSTRAKPertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor risiko diantaranya kekurangan gizi, kemiskinan, dan lingkungan rumah yang kurang stimulasi. Tujuan analisis adalah mengetahui proporsi gangguan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan dan mempelajari asosiasi asupan makanan dan pengasuhan dengan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak. Sampel adalah 247 anak, berusia 0,5–1,9 tahun dari penelitian South East Asian Nutrition Study tahun 2011. Pertumbuhan dinilai melalui Z-skor tinggi badan (TB) menurut umur standar WHO. Perkembangan diukur menggunakan test Denver II. Anak dikelompokkan menjadi: 1).TB dan perkembangan normal (NH-ND), 2).stunting tetapi perkembangan normal (S-ND), 3).TB normal tetapi perkembangan terganggu (NH-SD), dan 4). stunting dan perkembangan terganggu (S-SD). Asupan protein dikelompokkan atas cukup (≥80% RDA) dan kurang (<80% RDA). Pengasuhan diukur dari lama anak digendong, dikelompokkan menjadi ≤2 jam atau >2 jam. Status sosial ekonomi dikategorikan menjadi rendah dan tinggi. Analisis yang digunakan adalah multi-nomial logistic regression. Proporsi NH-ND, S-ND, NH-SD dan S-SD berturut-turut adalah 53,6%, 17,9%, 19,4%, dan 9,1%. S-ND berhubungan dengan kurang asupan protein (OR=2,2;95%CI:1,1-4,6), umur 1–1,9 tahun (OR=6,9: 95%CI:2,2-22,1). NH-SD berhubungan dengan umur 1,0–1,9 tahun (OR=0,3; 95%CI:0,1-0,6). S-SD berhubungan dengan kurang asupan protein (OR=3,1; 95%CI:1,2-8,2), SES rendah dan anak digendong > 2 jam (OR=6,9; 95%CI:2,5-19,0). Asupan protein, sosial ekonomi status dan pengasuhan anak merupakan faktor risiko untuk terjadinya pertumbuhan dan hambatan perkembangan pada anak.Kata kunci: konsumsi makanan, pengasuhan anak, perkembangan anak, status gizi 
STATUS KESEHATAN, INFLAMASI, DAN STATUS GIZI ANAK UMUR 0,5 – 12,9 TAHUN DI INDONESIA Effendi, Rustan; Sandjaja, nFN; Harahap, Heryudarini
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 36, No 2 (2013): September 2013
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Abstract

Penyakit infeksi dan konsumsi makanan merupakan penyebab langsung kurang gizi pada anak-anak yang masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat Indonesia. Dalam Studi SEANUTS dikumpulkan 9 penyakit infeksi, sebagian besar merupakan 10 penyakit utama penyebab kematian dan kesakitan, dengan wawancara adanya penyakit dalam waktu 1, 6, atau 12 bulan terakhir sesuai jenis penyakitnya baik yang didiagnosa tenaga kesehatan ataupun gejala penyakit. Sampel adalah anak umur 0,5-12,9 tahun dari 48 kabupaten/kota. Hasil studi menunjukkan prevalensi tertinggi diagnosa adalah ISPA (11,8-27,7%) dan diare (5,2-22,4%). Sedangkan 7 penyakit lainnya yaitu pneumonia, demam tifoid, malaria, campak, tuberkulosis paru, demam berdarah, dan hepatitis dengan prevalensi di bawah 5 persen. Pada kelompok umur anak yang lebih muda ditemukan prevalensi penyakit ISPA dan diare lebih tinggi dibandingkan pada kelompok umur di atasnya. Kemudian, prevalensi lebih tinggi di perdesaan dibanding perkotaan. Pada kelompok anak yang menderita lebih banyak penyakit ditemukan prevalensi kurang gizi (underweight) yang lebih tinggi. Kadar CRP di atas normal sebagai biomarker inflamasi terjadi pada 4,2-10,4 persen anak ABSTRACTHEALTH STATUS, INFLAMATION, AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF INDONESIAN CHILDREN 0.5 – 12,9 YEARS OLDInfection and dietary intake are directly associated with malnutrition. Both are still major public health problems among children in Indonesia. SEANUTS showed that 9 types of infections are included in the 10 leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children 0.5-12.9 year old. The data collected through interview comprised of diagnosed or apparent symptoms of different types of diseases over previous 1, 6, or 12 months. The results showed high period prevalence of ARI (11.8-27.7%) and diarrhoea (5.2-22.4%). The prevalence of 7 other diseases (pneumonia, thypoid fever, malaria, measles, tuberculosis, dengue hemmoraghic fever, and hepatitis) was below 5 percent. The prevalence of ARI and diarrhrea was higher in younger children than older children, and the prevalence was higher in rural compared to urban areas. Elevated CRP as a sign of inflammation was found in 4.2-10.4 percent children. The prevalence of underweight was higher among children suffering more diseases compared to healthy children.Keywords: health status, inflammation, infectious diseases, nutritional status
QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF BREAKFAST OF CHILDREN AGED 2.0 TO 12.9 YEARS IN INDONESIA Harahap, Heryudarini; Widodo, Yekti; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 42, No 1 (2019): Maret 2019
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Abstract

Doing breakfast among children is a public health concern as seen at one of the messages in ?Indonesian balanced nutrition which state ?breakfast every day?. The aim of this analysis is to determine the quantity and quality of Indonesian children?s breakfast based on children and parent characteristics, as well as nutritional status. Subjects were 2629 children, aged 2.0?12.9 years, included in the Southeast Asian Nutrition Study. The amount of the breakfast is categorized as very inadequate if <15 percent; inadequate if 15 to < 25 percent; or adequate if ? 25 percent of the Indonesian RDA. The quality of breakfast was categorized as ?not good?, if the breakfast skips one or more components of energy, protein and/or vitamins/minerals, or ?good? if the breakfast provides energy, protein and vitamins/minerals. The results indicated that on average only 31.6 percent of the children were categorized as having adequate breakfast consumption and 21.6 percent having good quality breakfast. Only 9.2 percent of children have adequate and good quality breakfast. Adequacy of breakfast differed between children, parent characteristics, and nutritional status, but only age has an association with the quality of breakfast (p<0.05). The nutrition education about good breakfast should be included as the part of curriculum, and school canteens provided a good food, as well as a campaign about Indonesian balanced nutrition slogan number 1 ?have breakfast every day? should be socialized.