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Biofuels Production from Catalytic Cracking of Palm Oil Using Modified HY Zeolite Catalysts over A Continuous Fixed Bed Catalytic Reactor Istadi, I.; Riyanto, Teguh; Buchori, Luqman; Anggoro, Didi D.; Pakpahan, Andre W. S.; Pakpahan, Agnes J.
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 10, No 1 (2021): February 2021
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.2021.33281

Abstract

The increase in energy demand led to the challenging of alternative fuel development. Biofuels from palm oil through catalytic cracking appear as a promising alternative fuel. In this study, biofuel was produced from palm oil through catalytic cracking using the modified HY zeolite catalysts. The Ni and Co metals were impregnated on the HY catalyst through the wet-impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Pyridine-probed Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. The biofuels product obtained was analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine its composition. The metal impregnation on the HY catalyst could modify the acid site composition (Lewis and Brønsted acid sites), which had significant roles in the palm oil cracking to biofuels. Ni impregnation on HY zeolite led to the high cracking activity, while the Co impregnation led to the high deoxygenation activity. Interestingly, the co-impregnation of Ni and Co on HY catalyst could increase the catalyst activity in cracking and deoxygenation reactions. The yield of biofuels could be increased from 37.32% to 40.00% by using the modified HY catalyst. Furthermore, the selectivity of gasoline could be achieved up to 11.79%. The Ni and Co metals impregnation on HY zeolite has a promising result on both the cracking and deoxygenation process of palm oil to biofuels due to the role of each metal. This finding is valuable for further catalyst development, especially on bifunctional catalyst development for palm oil conversion to biofuels.
Mekanisasi Pengaduk Adonan Bahan Baku Wingko Babat Sebagai Upaya Peningkatan Produktivitas dan Kualitas Produk Luqman Buchori; Didi Dwi Anggoro; Dyah Hesti Wardhani
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan" 2018: PROSIDING SNTKK 2018
Publisher : Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia Kejuangan

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Abstract

Peningkatan Kualitas dan Kuantitas Produk Elektroplating Melalui Perbaikan Kualitas Larutan Kimia di Bak Elektroplating dengan Filter Elektroplating Luqman Buchori; Didi Dwi Anggoro; Dyah Hesti Wardhani
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan" 2017: PROSIDING SNTKK
Publisher : Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia Kejuangan

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Abstract

Small electroplating industry is a small industry that is widely available in the city of Semarang. The mainprocesses in the electroplating industry are located in the coating process. This process occurs in theelectroplating bath. The quality of the metal coating is highly dependent on the quality of the chemicalsolution contained in the electroplating bath. If the chemical solution has good quality, such as the solutionwas clear, there are no impurities, the quality of the coating is also good. If the quality of the chemicalsolution is not good, then the results of the coating are also inferior such as there are bubbles in the layer, orthere is dirt on the die so that the coating process must be repeated. This will add to the cost of productionand a coating time so that increases operational costs. To solve this problem we need a system that canproduce a chemical solution that has good quality, clear, and there are no impurities. This system is calledthe filter electroplating. Results of electroplating filter application showed to increase the quantity andquality of production. The production capacity increased by 30% per day. The production turnover up 35%and profits increased by 45%. The chemical solution becomes clear and does not contain impurities so thatthe coating results becomes good.
The Potential of Cellulose as a Source of Bioethanol using the Solid Catalyst: A Mini-Review Didi Dwi Anggoro; Kamsi Nur Oktavia
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 3 Year 2021 (September 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.3.10635.661-672

Abstract

One of the most important biofuels is cellulose ethanol which is a popular material for bioethanol production. The present cellulosic ethanol production is through the cellulolytic process and this involves the splitting of complex cellulose into simple sugars through the hydrolysis process of the lignocellulose pretreated with acids and enzymes after which the product is fermented and distilled. There are, however, some challenges due to the enzymatic and acid processes based on the fact that acid hydrolysis has the ability to corrode equipment and cause unwanted waste while the enzymatic hydrolysis process requires a longer time because enzymes are costly and limited. This means there is a need for innovations to minimize the problems associated with these two processes and this led to the application of solid catalysts as the green and effective catalyst to convert cellulose to ethanol. Solid catalysts are resistant to acid and base conditions, have a high surface area, and do not cause corrosion during the conversion of the cellulose due to their neutral pH. This review, therefore, includes the determination of the cellulose potential as feedstock to be used in ethanol production as well as the preparation and application of solid catalyst as the mechanism to convert cellulose into fuel and chemicals. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
PENGAMBILAN MINYAK KEDELAI DARI AMPAS TAHU SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL Buchori, Luqman; Sasongko, Setia Budi; Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Aryanti, Nita
Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 10, No 2 (2012): Oktober 2012
Publisher : School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro Univer

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (764.317 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jil.10.2.49-53

Abstract

ABSTRAK Kedelai adalah komoditi terbesar setelah padi di Indonesia. Kebutuhannya mencapai 2,3 juta ton per tahun. Dari jumlah tersebut 50% dikonsumsi berupa tempe, 40% berupa tahu, dan 10% berupa minyak kedelai. Dari produksi tahu, dihasilkan limbah ampas tahu. Dalam penelitian ini, lemak pada ampas tahu diekstraksi untuk mendapatkan minyak kedelai yang dijadikan bahan baku biodiesel. Hasil ekstraksi kemudian dianalisa untuk dibandingkan dengan standar bahan baku biodiesel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghitung berat lemak yang terekstrak dari ampas tahu terhadap lama waktu ekstraksi dan jenis solven yang digunakan, serta mengetahui komposisi minyak ampas tahu tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa waktu ekstraksi dan jenis solven mempengaruhi jumlah lemak yang dapat terekstrak. Benzene merupakan solven yang dapat mengekstrak minyak lebih baik daripada solven toluene dan n-heksane. Solven benzene memiliki waktu optimum lima jam untuk mengekstrak lemak yang terdapat di dalam ampas tahu. Dari hasil analisa, diketahui bahwa kadar FFA minyak kedelai yang menggunakan solven benzene sebesar 4,8%, lebih kecil daripada menggunakan solven toluene (5,4%) dan n-heksan (5,8%). Sedangkan bilangan penyabunan diperoleh 184,22 mgKOH/gr untuk benzene, 193,55 mgKOH/gr untuk toluene dan 184,22 mgKOH/gr untuk n-heksan. Kandungan posfor yang didapat sebesar 0,19 untuk benzene, 0,23 untuk toluene dan 0,12% untuk n-heksan. Nilai ini masih dalam kategori besar sehingga harus melewati pretreatment terlebih dahulu sebelum melewati proses transesterifikasi menjadi biodiesel. Kata Kunci: ampas tahu; biodiesel; kedelai; minyak kedelai; transesterifikasi ABSTRACT Soybeans are the largest commodity after rice in Indonesia. Needs to reach 2.3 million tons per year. Of this amount 50% is consumed in the form of tempeh, 40% in the form of knowing, and 10% of soybean oil. From tofu production, tofu waste generated. In this study, fat on tofu extracted for soybean oil used as biodiesel feedstock. The results are then analyzed for compared to standard biodiesel feedstock. This study aimed to calculate the weight of fat extracted from the tofu waste to extraction time and the type of solvent and determines the composition of the oil tofu. The results showed that the extraction time and the type of solvent affects the amount of fat that can be extracted. Benzene is a solvent that can extract oil better than the solvents toluene and n-hexane. Benzene had five hours optimum to extract the fat in the tofu. From the analysis, it is known that the FFA content of soybean oil using benzene was 4.8%, smaller than toluene (5.4%) and n-heksane (5.8%). While these numbers obtained by saponification 184.22 mgKOH/gr for benzene, 193.55 mgKOH/gr for toluene and 184.22 mgKOH/gr for n-heksane. The content of phosphorus of 0.19 for benzene, 0.23 for toluene and 0.12% for n-heksane. This value is still in the major categories that must be passed before pretreatment process trough transesterification into biodiesel. Keywords: tofu waste; biodiesel; soybean; soybean oil; transesterification
STUDI KEARIFAN LOKAL SASI KELAPA PADA MASYARAKAT ADAT DI DESA NGILNGOF KABUPATEN MALUKU TENGGARA Renjaan, Melissa Justine; Purnaweni, Hartuti; Anggoro, Didi Dwi
Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 11, No 1 (2013): April 2013
Publisher : School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro Univer

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (275.304 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jil.11.1.23-29

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Dealuminasi dan Karakterisasi Zeolite Y sebagai Katalis untuk Konversi Gliserol menjadi Glycerol Monolaurate Didi Dwi Anggoro; Wahyu Bahari Setianto; Fadhil Rifqi P; Antonio Giovanno
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan" 2016: Prosiding SNTKK 2016
Publisher : Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia Kejuangan

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Abstract

Glycerol is a side product of a biodiesel production using transesterification process and an alcoholic compound that consists of three hydroxyl group. One of the glycerol derivative compound is Glycerol Monolaurate which used in food additives, surfactant, medicine, cosmetics and others. In the making of Glycerol Monolaurate, catalysts is used to accelerate the reaction and increasing the yield of Glycerol Monolaurate. One of the catalysts that had been used is Zeolite Y. Dealumination is used to increase the acidity of the zeolites. Characterizationis used to determine the characteristics of the Zeolit Y that had been dealuminise. This study consists of several stages, there are dealumination of Zeolite Y using H2­SO4. Then, drying at 110 º C for 1 hour. Then, calcinating at 500-600 ºC for 3 hours. Catalyst characteristics are analyzing by the Surface Area Analyzer to determine the surface area of the catalyst, and analysis with X - Ray Diffraction (XRD) to identify the bulk phase and determine the nature of the catalyst crystals or crystalitation of a catalyst, and Temperature-Programmed Desorption (TPD) to analyze the acidity of Zeolit Y that had been dealuminise. So we can get the optimum condition to produce Zeolit Y catalysts which also can Glycerol Monolaurate with the biggest yield possible.
Optimasi Proses Dealuminasi Modernite sebagai Katalis Perengkahan Minyak Goreng Bekas menjadi Biofuel Didi Dwi Anggoro; Luqman B; Setia Budi S; Nita A; Rohmadona H; Sigit B
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan" 2017: PROSIDING SNTKK
Publisher : Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia Kejuangan

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Abstract

Used cooking oil is a food industry waste and household waste, which has high potential to be used as biofuel feedstock, which has the chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms high. Biofuel can be produced by the method of catalytic cracking. Modernite is potential to be used as an acid catalyst for the cracking process. To get a good acidity catalyst, modernite can be modified catalyst by dealumination process. The raw material used is used cooking oil and used modernite type zeolite catalyst with a trademark CBV 21A, which having a mole ratio of SiO2 / Al2O3 of 20 and a surface area of 500 m2/g. The reactor used in the form of a catalytic reactor and a three-stage process i.e dealumination of the catalyst, catalyst calcination process, and catalyst testing to reaction of used cooking oil catalytic cracking. Dealuminated catalyst is carried on a temperature that is 30, 50, 70°C. Modernite catalyst dealumination results included in the pipe nozzle and injected into the furnace by flowing N2 gas at a temperature of 600oC for 5 jam. For catalyst testing for used cooking oil cracking reaction under temperature 450 oC. In this study, the optimization equation for the liquid product is Y = 2,801712 + 0,296807 X1 + 0,579137 X2 + 0,486784 X3 – 0,1875 X - 0,2125 X2X3 – 0,211775 X1^2 + 0,467905 X2^2 – 0,59326 X3^2
Pembuatan Briket Arang Dari Campuran Tempurung Kelapa dan Serbuk Gergaji Kayu Sengon Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Wibawa, Muhammad Hanif Dzikri; Fathoni, Moch Zaenal
TEKNIK Vol 38, No 2 (2017): (Desember 2017)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (589.868 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/teknik.v38i2.13985

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Indonesia merupakan negara tropis yang memiliki potensi dalam pengembangan energi terbarukan berupa energy biomassa dari briket tempurung kelapa. Briket ini merupakan hasil pengolahan limbah biomasa, diantaranya tempurung kelapa dan serbuk kayu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu, konsentrasi perekat dan komposisi bahan baku terhadap nilai kalor  briket. Bahan yang digunakan antara lain serbuk gergaji sengon, tempurung kelapa, tepung tapioka, aquadest. Alat yang digunakan kiln drum, alat pengempa briket, bom kalorimeter, oven, alat screening. Variabel berubah dalam percobaan adalah komposisi bahan baku dan kadar perekat. Langkah penelitian dilakukan dengan pengarangan bahan baku, pencampuran komposisi bahan baku dengan variabel perekat, pencetakan dan pengempaan, uji coba nilai kalor, terakhir analisa data. Hasil pengujian nilai kalor briket bahwa semakin banyak komposisi bahan yang memiliki kalor lebih tinggi maka nilai kalor  campuran briket akan semakin tinggi. Nilai kalor briket sampel tidak memenuhi syarat untuk briket arang buatan Amerika, Inggris, dan Jepang namun diantaranya memenuhi syarat standar nasional Indonesia. Penambahan perekat dalam  pembuatan briket tempurung kelapa dimaksudkan agar partikel arang saling berikatan dan tidak mudah hancur, namun penambahan perekat yang berlebih akan menurunkan kualitas briket, semakin tinggi kadar perekat maka nilai kalor akan berkurang
DEALUMINATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZSM - 5 AS CATALYST FOR GLYCEROL CONVERSION TO GLYCEROL MONOLAURATE Didi Dwi Anggoro; Riko Rikardo Putra; Herawati Oktaviani; Lutfi Af’idatul Kamilah; FatmaTsaniya Chamdani
Reaktor Volume 18 No. 2 June 2018
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (874.364 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.18.2.110-116

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Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a naturally occurring fatty acid widely utilized in food, cosmetics, andhomeopathic supplements. Glycerol is a compound glycerides, a byproduct of biodiesel production from the transesterification process. Glycerol is converted to glycerol derivative product that has more value as Glycerol Monolaurate (GML).GML is a naturally occurring fatty acid widely utilized in food, cosmetics, andhomeopathic supplements.One of the catalyst that had beenused is ZSM-5. Dealumination is used to change the acidity of the zeolite. This study consists of several stages, there are dealumination of zeolite ZSM-5 using H2SO4, drying at 110 ° C for 1 hour, Then calcination at a temperature of 550 ° C for 4 hours. Characterization catalyst to testing the acidity of the catalyst by absorption of ammonia and pyridine. Acidity of Zeolite is expressed in the mmol of ammonia or pyridine per gram of catalyst. Synthesis of monolaurate with dealuminated result are performed by GC-MS analysis, it’s to determine the molecular weight and to show a purity of Glycerol Monolaurate. Testing results obtained in the optimum conditions at dealumination temperature and dealumination time respectively are 40-60 0C and 2-5 hours. The dealumination variables are acid concentration, temperature and time of dealumination affecting ZSM-5 acidity and % yield of GML. The acidity affecting the yield% of Glycerol monolaurate produced Keywords :Glycerol, Glycerol Monolaurate, dealumination, ZSM - 5.