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TINGKAT KESUKAAN DAN SENYAWA PENYUSUN EKSTRAK FLAVOR DAUN SALAM (EUGENIA POLYANTHA WIGHT.) DARI BEBERAOA METODE SEPARASI Wartini Harijono, Ni Made; Susanto, Tri; Rurini Retnowati, Yunianta
Agrotekno Vol. 14, No.2 Agustus 2008
Publisher : Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

The research was conducted to produce salam leaf extract flavor, and to determine the composition of its flavor compounds, and to know the preference. The experiment was undertaken by using a randomized block design. Three methods of the separation process were undertaken, namely steam distillation, water distillation and simultaneous distillation-extraction. Fresh salam leaf were cutted and extracted by three methods and the flavor extract was drying by MgSO4 anhydrate. The flavor extract were determined its yield and characteristic of sensory and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The research result showed that the most preferred was the salam leaf flavor extracted by the simultaneous distillation-extraction method. Its flavor extract was contained the main compound of ?-ocimene (9.04%), octanal (11.31%), cis-4-decenal (28.43%), ?-humulene (9.20%) and decanal (6.49%).
Changes in Respiration, Composition and Sensory Characteristics of Rambutan Packed with Plastic Films During Storage at Low Temperature Widjanarko, Simon B.; Trisnawati, CH. Yayuk; Susanto, Tri
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 1, No 3 (2000)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Rambutan were held in sealed propropylene, polyethylene film bags and unpacked at 10±1 oC and 90-95% RH for 12 days. Physico-chemical, sensory changes and COEvolved were observed after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 days. Packing fruit in plastic bagsreduced declining quality by means of weigh loss, moisture content, reduction sugarscontent and vitamin C. Packed fruit showed low respiration rate, low browning rate andhigh retaining total phenol in rambutan skin. Treated fruit also indicated better attributesassociated with eating quality than control fruit. Polypropelene plastic bags showed thebest result in all changes quality occurring during storage at low temperature observed. Keyword: rambutan, pakced fruit, storage 
Ekstraksi dan Pemurnian Alginat dari Sargassum filipendula Kajian dari Bagian Tanaman, Lama Ekstraksi dan Konsentrasi Isopropanol Zailanie, Kartini; Susanto, Tri; Widjanarko, Simon B.
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 2, No 1 (2001)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

The objective of this research was to obtain the best treatment combination between plant’spast and length of extraction time and also purification by using isopropanol in order to obtainfrom seaweed thallus of Sargassum filipendula. This research used a Block Random Design having two factors. The first factor was plant’spart i.e. top, whole, lower end, leaves and the second factor was length of extraction time: 1 hour,2 hours and 3 hours. The best result from the two combinations was applied in the second phase ofresearch. The factors studied in the second phase were condition of seaweed (fresh and dried) andpurified by using isopropanol of 85%, 90% and 95%. Parameters evaluated were yield, watercontent, viscosity, ash content, Pb and Hg content, and effect of pH and heating on the product. The results showed that there were significant effect of the plant’s part to the yield and viscosity(α = 0,01). The length of extraction time significantly effected yield and viscosity. There were interaction between part of plant with the length of extraction time towards yield and viscosity ofalginate. The concentration of isopropanol did not have a significant effect to the product. Therewas a significant interaction between fresh and dry condition of the material and isopropanolconcentration towards viscosity. The best treatment was combination treatment of lower end part and wet condition that wasextracted for 2 hours and purified by using isopropanol 95% to produce 26.96% of alginate salt,14.21 cps of viscosity, and 3.25% ash content. The Hg content was 0.27 ppm and 6.30 ppm pf Pbwhich is still under the limit of government regulation.Keywords: extraction, purification, seaweed
Isolasi Khitin dari Cangkang Rajungan (Portunus pelagicus) kajian Suhu dan Waktu Proses Deproteinasi Martati, Erryana; Susanto, Tri; Yunianta, Yunianta; Ulifah, Ida Ayu
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 3, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

The aim of  research was to study the effect of temperature and the time exposure of deproteinization toward chitin characteristic. This experiment was done in various temperature i.e.  65, 75 and 85 0C and time exposure i.e. 2, 6 and 10 hours. The results showed the temperature treatment had influence toward degree deacetylization, nitrogen content and the yield very significantly. The time exposure treatment had influence toward degree deacetylization and nitrogen content very significantly. Interaction between two kinds of treatment had influence only toward degree deacetylization. The best treatment was selected by Multiple Attribute Method. It was deproteinization at 750C for 6 hours, result in nitrogen content 4,58%, degree deacetylization 12,14%, water content  4,41%, ash content 1,07% and the yield  14,57%. That chitin fulfilled chitin standard.   Key words : chitin, deproteinization, crab shell
Determination of The Levels of Lead (Pb), Total Microbes and E coli on Blood Cockles Marketed in the Sidoarjo Regency Retyoadhi, Alfa Yusuf; Susanto, Tri; Martati, Erryana
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 6, No 3 (2005)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Blood cockles (Anadara granosa Linn) has filter feeder properties, therefore they may accumulate contaminants such as heavy metals and microorganisms in their flesh. The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of Pb, total microorganisms and total E. Coli of fresh blood cockles marketed in Sidoarjo regency. The samples were randomly taken from the Cemandi Fishery Auction in the district of  Sedati, Sidoarjo and Sidoarjo Fishery Market. In each location,  the samples was randomly obtained from three different places. The levels of moisture, Pb, total microorganisms and total E. coli of the samples were then determined. The results showed that the Pb level of fresh blood cockles in Sidoarjo was 0,0153-0,0523 ppm (at moisture content 75 %). Total microorganisms and E. coli of fresh blood cockles were 3,03x103-20x103 cfu/g and 0,00-20 cfu/100g, respectively. The Pb and total microorganism levels were lower than those of the Indonesia Quality Standard of Agriculture Product and FDA standards. However, from  the seven samples, three of which contained total E Coli exceeding the one of the Indonesia Quality Standard of Agriculture Product and FDA standards. Therefore, it is advised to cooked the blood cockles properly before consumption.   Keyword : fresh blood cockles, Pb, total microorganism, E coli.
Effect of Water:Bean Ratio during Extraction Process on Solid, Protein, and Calcium Extractability and on Ratio of 7S/11S Protein Fraction Yuwono, Sudarminto Setyo; Susanto, Tri
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 7, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Water: bean ratio has an important role during extraction process in tofu industries. This factor determines yield and textural properties of tofu. The aim of the research was to evaluate the role of water: bean ratio on soymilk characteristics and to determine the extractability of solids, protein, and calcium. It was shown that the increase amount of water, from water to bean ratio of 10:1 to 30:1, reduced the total solids, protein and calcium content of soymilk, however, increased the total extracted solids, protein and calcium in the range of 53,53% - 68,44%,  73,08% - 83,21%, and 23,38% - 38,44%, respectively. Such an increase also resulted in the increase of 7S/11S globulin ratio, from 0,232 to 0,259.   Key words: soybean, water:bean ratio, globulin 7S/11S
Alkaline Treated Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Based Composite Flour for the Making of Biscuit Lubis, Yanti Meldasari; Kumalaningsih, Sri; Susanto, Tri
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 7, No 3 (2006)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

The objective of the research was to find out the optimum alkaline treatment to produce a light colour, starch-rich flour containing high levels of undamaged starch, intended for the making of a formulated biscuit. The research was divided into two experiments. First, a factorial randomized block design experiment with two factors: the concentration of NaOH (0.04%, 0.06%, and 0.08%) and the dipping time (15, 30 and 45 minutes). The second experiment was the use of the Linear Programming approach supported by the QSB to obtain the desirable biscuit formula. The results of the first experiment indicated that the breadfruit flour dipped for 45 minutes in the 0.08% NaOH solution was the best one. The treated flour at a moisture content of 6.63% contains 60.86% starch, 22.56% amylose, 3.25% protein, 6.26% fat, and the L value (degree of Lightness) of 74.9, water absorption index of 4.80 g/g, initiation of gelatinization temperature of 69.3 oC, gelatinization temperature of 80.9 oC, maximum viscosity of more than 2000 AU and undamaged granules. The best results of the second experiment was the biscuit formula containinq  31.76% breadfruit flour, 20% wheat flour, 13.03% red bean flour, which  meets  with  the  nutrition  requirement. The  texture  and  breaking force of the formulated biscuit was not significantly difference with the one of the biscuit made without the addition of breadfruit flour (the control), but has the lower L value. Moreover except  the crispness, the colour, aroma and the taste of formulated biscuit were found the best significantly different from those of the control biscuit. Keywords: Breadfruit flour, Alkaline modification (NaOH), biscuit, Linier Programming formulation
Optimasi Proses Demineralisasi Cangkang Rajungan (Portunus pelagicus) Kajian Suhu dan Waktu Demineralisasi Martati, Erryana; Susanto, Tri; Yunianta, Yunianta; Efendi, Zohan
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 3, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

The aim of the research was to  study the effect of temperature and the time exposure of deproteinization toward demineralized crab shell characteristic. This experiment was done in various temperature i.e.  650 C, 750C and 850 C and time exposure i.e. 2, 6 and 10 hours. The results showed the temperature treatment had influence toward ash content, calcium content, protein content  and the yield very significantly. The time exposure treatment had influence toward ash content, calcium content and  protein content very significantly. Interaction  both of that had influence toward calcium content only. The best treatment was selected by Multiple Attributes Methods. It was demineralizalition  at temperature 85 0C for 15 hours, The characteristics  of demineralized shell were ash content  0,277%, calcium content  0,123%,  water content  5,364 %, protein content 30,3% and the yield  13,21%. This treatment gave  mineral content and calcium content of demineralized shell   that fulfilled the chitin standard.Key words: chitin, demineralization, crab shell
Characteristics of Alginate Extract from Padina Sp. Susanto, Tri; Rakhmadiono, Sugeng; Mujianto, Mujianto
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 2, No 2 (2001)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Alginate is a complex organic compound of phycocolloid, extracted from brown seaweeds.   The objective of this research was to obtain the best extraction procedure and to evaluate the characteristics of alginate produced from Padina sp.This research used a Block Random Design having two phases. The first phase had two factors, i.e HCl solution (0,5, 0,75, and 1%) and  concentrations of Na2CO3 (2,5 5 and 7,5%). The best result of the combinations was used for the second research. The second phase also had two factors, they were Ca(OCl)2 as bleaching agent (0, 1 and 2%) and  concentration of purification agent by using isopropanol (75, 85 and 95%). As the second  parameters taken were yield, water content, ash, lightness, Pb and Hg content, viscosity and  effect of pH and heating on the product.The result showed that there was a significant interaction of HCl and Na2CO3 concentration ( = 0,05) to the yield. But insignificant result were the viscosity and ash content. The concentration of HCl showed a significant effect to ash content. There was an interaction between HCl concentration  and Na2CO3 to the yield, water content and viscosity. The concentration of Ca(OCl) 2 and isopropanol showed a significant effect to viscosity and water content, and showed an insignificant effect to lightness. The best treatment was the combination between HCl  1% and Na2CO3 5%,  bleached by using Ca(OCl)2 2%  and purified by using  isopronanol 85%. They produced 30,30% of alginate salt, having parameters such as: viscosity of 12,2 cps, ash content of 30,51%, water content of 11,21% and lightness score of 53,89.The characteristics alginate produced from Padina sp. revealed having Hg content of  0,26 ppm and 6,15 ppm of Pb which is still below the limit of government regulation, and  posess  of decreasing of viscosity on extreme pH as well as heating treatments.  By using infra red spectrum,  the  alginate  produced  in this experiment  characterized into a  Chemical group of C-C-C-C-C-C,  -O-H. –COOH,C-O-C, and C-H.Key words : alginate, extraction,  characterization
Extraction and Characterization of Endogenous Polygalacturonase Enzyme in Cocoa Pulp Gandaputra, G. P.; Harijono, Harijono; Susanto, Tri; Kumalaningsih, Sri; Aulanni'am, Aulanni'am
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 8, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Endogenous polygalacturonase (PG) enzymes in cocoa pulp have not been studied yet. The research, aimed to extract and characterize endogenous PG enzymes in cocoa pulp, was carried in two steps: (i) extraction of endogenous PG enzyme and (ii) enzyme characterization i.e. enzyme activity assay and determination of enzymatic kinetics (Km and Vmax), molecular weight (MW) by electrophoresis, and determination of its optimum temperature and pH. The results showed that the characteristics of endogenous PG in cocoa pulp were as followed: the relative activity of 4,58± 0,06 Units/ml,  Vmax of 6,69 Units/ml, Km of 0,37 %, MW was 32,84 and 63,58 kDa, and the combination of temperature and pH optimum were 42,5oC and 4,6. Key words: endogenous polygalacturonase (PG), cocoa pulp