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Optimalisasi Kinerja Alat Pirolisis pada Pembuatan Biochar dari Limbah Jengkok Tembakau Hendra Banat; Sinar Perbawani Abrina Anggraini; Yeni Ulfi Rahayu; Taufik Iskandar
Reka Buana : Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 3, No 2 (2018): EDISI SEPTEMBER 2018
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (644.779 KB) | DOI: 10.33366/rekabuana.v3i2.1022

Abstract

The pyrolysis process can convert biomass waste from various agricultural wastes into high value products, easy to operate, friendly of high environmental security standard and environment. This research aims to determine the optimization of pyrolysis machine performance based on temperature and combustion time in producing quality biochar. Variable pyrolisis temperature are (400, 450, 500, 550, 600) 0C with combustion time (30, 35, 40) minutes and type of biomass waste in the form of tobacco waste. Tobacco waste is the remnants of the production process of cigarettes in the form of fine (powder), put in a sack or burlap and stored in certain warehouses to avoid undesirable things to the environment. Pursuant to result of research which have been done, the optimal performance of pyrolysis machine is at 500 °C and 30 minutes with biochar moisture content of 0,06%, biochar percentage 29,79%, loss components of 70,21%, heat loss of 304,50 KJ / Kg and machine performance of 17,06 Kg / m.h. So that can be concluded that a pyrolysis machine can be said to be optimal if the machine produces biochar with low moisture content, high biochar percentage (yield percentage), low loss components, low discharged energy and produce high machine performance with the lowest possible time.
PRA RANCANGAN PABRIK BRIKET ARANG DARI JERAMI PADI DENGAN KAPASITAS 1.900 TON/ TAHUN Abrina Anggraini, Sinar Perbawani; Iskandar, Taufik; Sugito, Bambang
eUREKA : Jurnal Penelitian Mahasiswa Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Petroleum is a non-renewable energy, while oil is still a choice that will result in the depletion of oil reserves. One of the energy that needs to be addressed to develop is biomass as an alternative energy. Alternative technologies for utilizing biomass waste is a technology for making charcoal by pyrolysis. Charcoal briquettes can be used as an energy alternative to kerosene. The raw material charcoal briquettes can be made of various materials, such as rice straw. In this study, the material used is rice straw aims to determine the effect of particle size dankuat press the calorific value and the duration of the test flame from rice straw charcoal briquette. Rice straw is the material that is not so good to be used as charcoal briquettes, in accordance with the results of the highest calorific value is 3,100 cal and flame test longest time is 10501 seconds or 1: 52 min. While most high calorific content of only 2,913. So as to substitute alternative energy not so good according to SNI 1-6235-200. Keywords: Crude Oil, Biomass, Energy alternatives, rice straw, charcoal briquets.
POTENSI TEKNOLOGI ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA TERHADAP KEAMANAN PANGAN Abrina Anggraini, Sinar Perbawani; Seda, Yulius Prianto; Longa Rasi, Antonius Juandri
eUREKA : Jurnal Penelitian Mahasiswa Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Liquid smoke is a chemical derived from the condensation of smoke decomposition of organic compounds in the process pirolosis. Liquid smoke contains several components that support the properties and functional. Many liquid smoke contains a number of chemical compounds that have the potential as a raw material of food preservatives. Liquid smoke used for food preservative must be free of dangerous compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on the quantity, liquid smoke coconut shell can produce the greatest yiel data temperature of 400℃ to produce a yield of 11.83 (%w/w). Based on the quality, liquid smoke coconut shell has a very good quality at a temperature of 400℃ with a total yield of 11.83 (%w/w), a pH value of 1.23, and a phenol content of 4.63%. This shows that the liquid smoke has excellent antibacterial properties, liquid smoke plays an important roleas a giver of good aroma and antioxidant as well as a distinctive flavor in food products. Liquid smoke coconut shell can also be used as a preservative safe alternative to konsumsi. This is evidenced by the detection of compound benzo (a) pyrene in smoked grade 1 Kata kunci : asap cair, proses pirolisis, benzo (a) pirene
PENGARUH PERBANDINGAN JUMLAH MEDIA FILTER (Pasir Silika, Karbon Aktif, Zeolit) DALAM KOLOM FILTRASI TERHADAP KUALITAS AIR MINERAL Suliastuti, Indra; Abrina Anggraini, Sinar Perbawani; Iskandar, Taufik
eUREKA : Jurnal Penelitian Mahasiswa Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Filtration is one of water treatment process that aims to remove suspended solid in water so result purified water. Filtration carried out by seperate solid from water with filter medium. There are many filter medium that use in filtration process, but this study use fine sand, activaited carbon, and zeolit. Filter mediums are series arranged from bottom until the top. The bottom is zeolit, then activated carbon, and the top is fine sand. Water flow through on the top (fine sand), and out from bottom (zeolit). This study aims to find out amount of filter medium effect. Trial done by change amount of filter medium (fine sand, activated carbon, zeolit). The result showed that increase amount of fine sand (from 100 gr to 1500 gr) can reduced concentration of suspended solid. But increase amount of activated carbon (from 100 gr to 1500 gr) is not affected with water physical quality. Zeolit is increased from 100 gr to 1500 gr can be colorless water and reduced turbidity. Kata kunci : Filtration, fine sand, actived carbon, zeolit.
PRA RANCANG PABRIK BIODIESEL DARI BIJI MAHONI DENGAN PROSEESTERIFIKASI – TRANSESTERIFIKASI DENGAN KAPASITAS 54.453 TON/TAHUN Tera, Maria Yunita; Iskandar, Taufik; Abrina Anggraini, Sinar Perbawani
eUREKA : Jurnal Penelitian Mahasiswa Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Biodiesel merupakan bahan bakar alternatif pengganti solar yang layak, ekonomis, ramah lingkungan dan mudah tersedia. Berbagai macam minyak hewani, lemak hewani serta minyak sisa penggorengan bisa dijadikan bahan baku pembuatan biodiesel. Namun dari beberapa bahan baku tersebut, pada saat ini minyak biji mahoni yang digunakan sebagai bahan baku biodiesel karena dilihat dari sisi ketersediaan bahan bakunya. Proses yang digunakan untuk pembuatan biodiesel dari biji mahoni adalah proses esterifikasi – transesterifikasi. Pabrik biodiesel dari biji mahoni ini direncanakan akan didirikan di Kabupaten Ende, Nusa Tenggara Timur tepatnya di Kecamatan Detusoko desa Dile, dengan kapasitas 54.453 ton/tahun. Bentuk perusahaan Persero Terbatas (PT). Ditinjau dari perhitungan analisa ekonomi, pabrik biodiesel dari biji mahoni ini layak didirikan dengan penilaian investasi sebagai berikut : Total Capital Invesment (TCI) : Rp. 50.041.611.808; Return Of Invesment (ROI): 49,90%; Pay Out Time (POT) : 4,5 tahun. Break Event Point 31% ; Internal Rate Of Return (IRR): 49,41%. Kata kunci: biodisel, esterifikasi, transesterifikasi, biji mahoni.
PENGARUH KADAR AMILUM DAN UKURAN PARTIKEL TERHADAP KUALITAS BRIKET ARANG DARI TEMPURUNG KELAPA Seo, Belandina; Yuniningsih, Susy; Abrina Anggraini, Sinar Perbawani
eUREKA : Jurnal Penelitian Mahasiswa Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Biomass or organic waste materials can be processed and used as an alternative fuel for example, the manufacture of briquettes. During this briquettes are made only from coal alone. The researchers tried briquettes from coconut shell, coconut shell charcoal is the product obtained from the incomplete combustion of coconut shell. Charcoal gives a higher combustion heat and less smoke. The process of making charcoal briquettes using carbonization process in which the temperature of 300 ° C is used to form the coconut shell charcoal. One of the factors that influence the combustion process of coconut shell charcoal briquette is theparticle size. With smaller particle size, it will be faster charcoal .briquettes burn, whereasfor larger particle size for gluing it will be difficult to glue. Starch concentration and particle size effect on the calorific value as more and more levels of starch used, the calorific value decreases, the high calorific value is at 6% starch content is 8.317kkal, and a particle size of 30 mesh. Keywords: Size of Particle, Composition Starch Solution ABSTRAK Biomassa ataupun bahan-bahan limbah organik dapat diolah dan dijadikan sebagai bahan bakar alternatif contohnya, dengan pembuatan briket.Selama ini pembuatan briket hanya terbuat dari batu bara saja. Maka peneliti mencoba pembuatan briket dari tempurung kelapa, arang tempurung kelapa adalah produk yang diperoleh dari pembakaran tidak sempurna dari tempurung kelapa. Arang memberikan kalor pembakaran yang lebih tinggi dan asap yang lebih sedikit. Proses pembuatan arang briket menggunakan proses karbonisasi dimana temperatur yang digunakan adalah 300 - 500oC terbentuk arang tempurung kelapa. Salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi pada proses pembakaran briket arang tempurungkelapa adalah ukuran partikel. Dengan Partikel yang lebih kecil ukurannya, maka briket arangakan lebih cepat terbakar, sedangkan untuk ukuran partikel yang lebih besar maka untuk perekatan akan partikel yang cukup besar akan sulit dilakukan perekatan sehingga mempengaruhi kuat tekan untuk merekat. Kadar amilum dan ukuran partikel berpengaruh terhadap nilai kalor karena semakin banyak kadar amilum yang digunakan maka nilai kalornya semakin menurun dikarenakan kadar air yang terdapat dalam perekat semakin banyak Nilai kalor yang tinggi adalah pada kadar amilum 6% yaitu 8.317kkal, danukuran partikel 30 mesh.
RANCANG BANGUN PABRIK GAS HIDROGEN MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM PSA DARI CANGKANG KELAPA SAWIT DENGAN KAPASITAS 949 TON/TAHUN DENGAN ALAT UTAMA SCRUBBER Nasrun, David; Abrina Anggraini, Sinar Perbawani; Iskandar, Taufik
eUREKA : Jurnal Penelitian Mahasiswa Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

The problem we face today is the limitation of Fossil Fuels that we use as an energy source. Increased demand for energy and depletion of world oil reserves put pressure on every citizen of the world to use renewable energy. The government has issued a regulation of the president of the Republic of Indonesia number 5 of 2005 on national energy policy to develop alternative energy as a substitute for fuel oil. Hydrogen is the most abundant element on earth but in many H2 gas compounds it is rarely available in nature. The largest utilization of hydrogen is for the production of ammonia as a raw material for urea fertilizer. It is also used to reduce metal in steel industry, Planning the establishment of hydrogen gas purification plant with PSA system is in the form of Home Industry with medium scale. This design will be established in West Kalimantan. To assist in the implementation of plant processes and operations, there is a need for auxiliary units that provide and distribute plant needs such as water and electricity. Water supply for factory needs is obtained from PDAM. Process water used for scrubbers, cooling water used for coolers, and sanitary water for office, canteen, mosque and others. Based on the selection of plant layout process and other considerations, the Pre Design of Hydrogen Plant from Palm Oil Shells with a capacity of 949 tons / year is planned to be built in Sanggau Regency, Pontianak, West Kalimantan in 2018 with a capacity of 949 tons / year. Based on economic analysis, the hydrogen plant is feasible to be established in terms of the following economic aspects: ROIat (%): 47.37%, POT (Year): 15 Months, BEP (%): 33.3%, IRR (%): 41 , 4% Then it can be concluded that Pre Design Hydrogen Plant Build from Palm Oil Shells with a capacity of 949 tons / year worthy to be established. Keywords: Energy, Hydrogen, Scrubber ABSTRAK Permasalahan yang kita hadapi saat ini adalah keterbatasan akan Bahan Bakar Fosil yang kita gunakan sebagai sumber energy. Peningkatan permintaan akan energy dan menipisnya sumber cadangan minyak dunia memberikan tekanan kepada setiap penduduk dunia untuk menggunakan energy terbaharukan. Pemerintah telah menerbitkan peraturan presiden republik Indonesia nomor 5 tahun 2005 tentang kebijakan energy nasional untuk mengembangkan energy alternative sebagai pengganti bahan bakar minyak. Hydrogen merupakan unsur yang paling melimpah dibumi namun dalam banyak senyawa gas H2 sangat jarang tersedia di alam. Pemanfaatan hydrogen terbesar yaitu untuk produksi ammonia sebagai bahan baku pupuk urea. Selain itu juga digunakan untuk mereduksi logam pada industry baja, Perencanaan pendirian pabrik pemurnian gas hydrogen dengan system PSA ini berbentuk Home Industry dengan skala sedang. Rancang bangun ini akan didirikan di Kalimantan Barat. Untuk membantu pelaksanaan proses dan operasi pabrik, diperlukan adanya unit pembantu yang menyediakan dan mendistribusikan kebutuhan pabrik seperti air dan listrik. Persediaan air untuk kebutuhan pabrik di peroleh dari PDAM. Air proses yang digunakan untuk scrubber, air pendingin yang digunakan untuk cooler, dan air sanitasi untuk kebutuhan kantor, kantin, masjid dan lain-lain. Berdasarkan seleksi proses pembuatan tata letak pabrik serta pertimbangan lainnya, maka Pra Rancang Bangun Pabrik Hidrogen dari Cangkang Kelapa sawit dengan kapasitas 949 ton/tahun ini direncanakan di bangun di Kabupaten Sanggau, Pontianak Kalimantan Barat pada tahun 2018 dengan kapasitas 949 ton/tahun. Berdasarkan analisa ekonomi, pabrik hidrogen ini layak untuk didirikan dilihat dari aspek ekonomi berikut: ROIat (%) : 47,37%, POT (Tahun): 15 Bulan, BEP (%) : 33,3%, IRR (%) : 41,4% Maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa Pra Rancang Bangun Pabrik Hidrogen dari Cangkang Kelapa Sawit dengan kapasitas 949 ton/tahun layak didirikan. Kata Kunci : Energi, Hidrogen, Scrubber
RANCANG BANGUN ASAP CAIR DARI TONGKOL JAGUNG MENGGUNAKAN PROSES PYROLYSIS Sansaka, Fajar Hary; Abrina Anggraini, Sinar Perbawani; Iskandar, Taufik
eUREKA : Jurnal Penelitian Mahasiswa Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Liquid smoke obtained by burning dry biomass with high temperatures and little air (pyrolysis). Liquid smoke from corn cobs able to turn waste into food preservatives plantation substitute hazardous chemicals namely formaldehyde. fuel conversion efficiency is quite good, the energy density (energy content per unit volume) is quite high, and the ease of storage and distribution. Liquid smoke is used as a substitute for eating preservative chemicals or formaldehyde with a simple and inexpensive technology. Smoke-making process begins with the drying process, the enumeration process, the pyrolysis process and the process of purification, then after the final purification of smoke packed and marketed. Design of liquid smoke is expected to be in production with: 100 tons / year, while operating 300 days / year, 24 hours per day, divided into 3 shifts. Industrial locations will be built in the village Dadaprejo, District Junrejo, Batu, East Java. Form of industry is a Limited Liability Company (PT). Judging from the calculation of economic analysis to the design of liquid smoke, the obtained data is as follows: Total Capital Investment (TCI): Rp 2,171,285,991.14; Return Of Investment (ROIat): 34.06%; Play Out Time (POT) : 2.33 years. Break Even Point (BEP): 32.34%.; Shut Down Point (SDP): 4.83 tons / year; Internal Rate Of Return (IRR): 33.77%. It can be concluded that the design and construction of liquid smoke corn cob with fast pyrolysis process capacity of 100 tons / year worth to set up. Keywords: corn cobs, liquid smoke, and fast pyrolisis ABSTRAK Asap cair diperoleh dengan membakar biomassa kering dengan suhu tinggi dan sedikit udara (pirolisis). Asap cair dari tongkol jagung mampu mengubah limbah perkebunan menjadi pengawet makanan penganti bahan kimia berbahaya yaitu formalin. bahan bakar dengan efisiensi konversi cukup baik, densitas energi (kandungan energi per satuan volume) cukup tinggi, serta kemudahan dalam hal penyimpanan dan pendistribusian. Asap cair ini digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet makan penganti bahan kimia atau formalin dengan teknologi yang sederhana dan murah. Proses pembuatan asap diawali dengan proses pengeringan, proses pencacahan , proses pirolisis dan proses pemurnian, kemudian setelah pemurnian asap dikemas dan terakhir dipasarkan. Rancang bangun asap cair ini diharapkan dapat berproduksi dengan: 100 ton/tahun, waktu operasi 300 hari/tahun, 24 jam per hari , terbagi menjadi 3 shift. Lokasi Industri akan dibangun di Desa Dadaprejo, Kecamatan Junrejo, Kota Batu, Jawa Timur. Bentuk industri adalah Perseroan Terbatas (P T). Ditinjau dari perhitungan analisa ekonomi terhadap rancang bangun asap cair ini, maka diperoleh data sebagai berikut: Total Capital Invesment (TCI): Rp 2.171.285.991,14 ; Return Of Invesment (ROIat): 34,06 %; Play Out Time (POT): 2,33 tahun. Break Even Point (BEP): 32,34 %.; Shut Down Point (SDP): 4,83 ton/tahun; Internal Rate Of Return (IRR): 33,77%. Maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa rancang bangun asap cair dari tongkol jagung dengan proses fast pyrolysis kapasitas 100 ton/tahun layak untuk didirikan. Kata kunci: tongkol jagung, asap cair , dan fast pyrolisis
PEMANFAATAN TONGKOL JAGUNG MENJADI ASAP CAIR MENGGUNAKAN PROSES PIROLISIS Martins, Olga Dasilva; Abrina Anggraini, Sinar Perbawani; Yuniningsih, Susy
eUREKA : Jurnal Penelitian Mahasiswa Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

The stench caused by the breakdown of proteins by microbes produce a shing odor that is often encountered by rubber farmers cause bokar quality ( though rubber material ) to be low and cause environmental pollution if not handled in a proper way . In the timber industry , the wood becomes easy rotten, easily attacked by termites and easily decayed , it can be said that the quality of the wood is low. Solutions to this problem’s is to utilize the technology of liquid smoke. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality and quantity of liquid smoke corncob non-food as a natural preservative that can be applied to rubber plantations and wood industries. This study begins with the cleaning process, enumeration and drying. Then weighed as much as 3 kg of corn cobs and put into a pyrolysis reactor at a temperature of 175 °C, for 5 hours. The third stage product analysis by GC/MS for the brand Hewlett Packard 6890 MSD 5973 GC equipped Chesstation data base system and a pH meter. The results showed that the quantity of liquid smoke corncob based on the yield is 31.65 % . The quality of liquid smoke seen from phenol content is 1, 38 % and acidity ( As. Acetate ) at 1.3 %. Keywords : Corn Cob, Pyrolisis, Condensation, Liquid Smoke
OPTIMALISASI KANDUNGAN ASAP CAIR DARI TEMPURUNG KELAPA DAN SABUT KELAPA MELALUI PROSES PIROLISIS Purnawati, Eka; Abrina Anggraini, Sinar Perbawani; Yuniningsih, Susy
eUREKA : Jurnal Penelitian Mahasiswa Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang

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Abstract

Coconut shell and husk was the waste wich has not been utilize optimally. They have a fairly high content of cellulose. The solution of this problem to become liquid smoke. The aim of this research was to detect the best yield result of liquid smoke that containet phenol and acid. Liquid smoke obtained from the condensation of fumes on pyrolysis of constituents such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Pyrolysis occurred for 5 hours at temperature of 400 ° C. Two dominant resulting compound is phenol and organic acids which inhibit the growth of bacteria. The best results are found in liquid smoke grade 1 with grade phenol compound at 4.08%, 10.39% acidity and pH value of 1.4. The yield best results from the coconut husk is 32.6%. Key Word : Liquid Smoke, Pyrolysis, Phenol