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The Prevalence of Human Immunodefiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) Subtypes and Transmission Method among HIV/AIDS Infection Patient in Tulungagung, East Java Indonesia Nasronudin, Nasronudin; Lusida, Maria Inge; Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Utomo, Budi; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Juniastuti, Juniastuti; Qushay, M.; Ardianto, Achmad
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 5 (2015)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

The rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. There are some factors which have influenced the spreading of this epidemic in Indonesia, such as the poor awareness to avoid unsafe free sex attitude and the sharing of needles and syringes among intravenous drug users (IDUs). The sexual transmission of HIV has also apparently increased in Tulungagung. Commercial sex workers play a significant role in the spread of HIV in Tulungagung. People in Tulungagung have worked at other countries as Indonesian migrants. This condition can cause the increase number of HIV-1 case and the possibility of genetic variation (subtype) HIV-1 in Tulungagung. This research is aimed to analyze the subtype and to determine estimation of transmission mode on infected patient of HIV-1 and AIDS who came to Seruni clinic Dr. Iskak hospital in Tulungagung. 40 HIV?AIDSpatients were interviewed to determine the subtype and the transmission mode. The results showed that 14 of 40 plasma samples (35%) were successfully to amplified and sequenced. OverallCRF01-AE wereidentified as predominant subtype among HIV/AIDS patients in Tulungagung. Based on individual information, 31 of 40 subjects (77%) were heterosexual transmission.
Immunopathological aspects of oral erythema multiforme Maharani Laillyza Apriasari; Retno Pudji Rahayu
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol. 42 No. 4 (2009): December 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://fkg.unair.ac.id/en

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (425.331 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v42.i4.p159-163

Abstract

Background: Erythema multiforme is an acute disease on the skin and mucous membrane. This lesion can erupt in mucous membranes of the oral cavity. Improper and late treatment may cause Stevens Johnson syndrome which may cause patient mortality, therefore proper and accurate diagnosis are needed. Purpose: The immunopathological aspect of oral erythema multiforme through literature study can help us to find the definite diagnosis and to know the differential diagnosis. review: In immunopathology, minor type of erythema multiforme is vasculitis caused by the immune complex hypersensitivity reaction among antigen antibodies. The mayor type of erythema multiforme may appeared from autoimmune reaction and from untreated minor type of erythema multiforme. Conclusion: Immunopathological approach of erythema multiforme is important beside the clinical manifestation, histology, and the differential diagnosis to find the definitive diagnosis.
Combination of Aloe vera and xenograft induction on decreasing of NF-kb of tooth extraction socket preservation in Cavia cobaya Utari Kresnoadi; Retno Pudji Rahayu
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol. 47 No. 1 (2014): March 2014
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://fkg.unair.ac.id/en

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (745.446 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i1.p1-6

Abstract

Background: Tooth extraction can naturally cause inflammation triggering osteoclast proliferation and alveolar bone resorption. Preservation of the tooth extraction sockets is needed for patients in order to reduce alveolar bone resorption risks. Aloe vera is known to have anthraquinones components, namely Aloin, Aloe emedin, and barbaloin, considered as anti-inflammation. Therefore, to overcome the inflammation, the role of NF-kb is very significant to decrease nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kb). As a result, inflammation risks will be decreased. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the induction effect of combination of Aloe vera and XCB into tooth extraction sockets to reduce inflammation by reducing NF-kb expression, osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Methods: Forty-eight Cavia cobaya were divided into eight groups, each group consisted of six animals. The mandibular incisors of those Cavia cobaya were extracted and induced with either PEG, XCB, Aloe vera, or the combination of Aloe vera + XCB. Those animals were sacrificed on day 7 and day 30 after the extraction. Then immunohistochemical and histopathology examinations were conducted to observe NF-kb expression, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Results: It was known that in group induced with the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine, the growth of osteoblasts was high, while NF-kb expression and osteoclasts reduced. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and XCB into the tooth extraction sockets can reduce NF-kb expression and osteoclast, as a result, alveolar bone resorption risks decrease, and osteoblast increase.Latar belakang: Trauma mekanis akibat pencabutan gigi asli menyebabkan keradangan. Keradangan memicu proliferasi osteoklas sehingga menyebabkan resorpsi tulang alveolararis. Pada pembuatan gigi tiruan, resorpsi tulang alveolar yang terjadi, sangat tidak diinginkan, sebab resorpsi tulang alveolar mengurangi keberhasilan pembuatan gigitiruan. Diperlukan preservasi soket pencabutan gigi asli pada penderita untuk mencegah terjadinya resorpsi tulang alveolar. Aloe vera mempunyai komponen anthraquinon yaitu aloin, Aloe emodin, barbaloin yang merupakan anti inflamasi yang dapat secara cepat menyembuhkan luka, sehingga berpotensi untuk digunakan pada preservasi soket. Didalam mengatasi keradangan peran NF-kb sangat berarti, sebab penurunan NF-kb akan mengurangi terjadinya inflamasi. tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji apakah induksi kombinasi lidah buaya dan XCB ke soket pencabutan gigi dapat mengurangi peradangan dengan mengurangi ekspresi NF - kb , osteoklas dan osteoblast. Metode: Empat puluh delapan ekor Cavia cabaya yang terdiri dari 8 kelompok, tiap kelompok 6 ekor, kelompok pengisian PEG (kontrol), kelompok pengisian XCB, kelompok pengisian aloe vera dan kelompok pengisian kombinasi aloe vera dan XCB, kelompok ini terdiri dari kelompok 7 dan 30 hari, kemudian diperiksa dengan imunohistokimia ekspresi NF-kb dan pemeriksaan histologi untuk osteoblas dan osteoklas. Hasil: Kelompok yang diisi kombinasi Alo vera dan xenograft concelous bovine pada soket pencabutan gigi, menunjukan nilai tertinggi dalam pertumbuhan osteoblas dan penurunan pada ekspresi NF-kb dan osteoklas. Simpulan: Induksi kombinasi Aloe vera dan xenograft concelous bovine pada preservasi soket pencabutan gigi dapat menurunkan ekspresi NF-kB dan osteoklas, menurunkan resiko resorpsi tulang alveolar dan meningkatkan osteoblas.
The effect of musa acuminata stem in increasing macrophage and neovascular cells of healing process Apriasari, Maharani Laillyza; Puspitasari, Dewi; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Ernawati, Diah Savitri
Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (838.226 KB) | DOI: 10.24198/pjd.vol30no2.18324

Abstract

Introduction: Musa acuminata stem has both of imunostimulatory and imunosuppressant effects that are influenced by their concentrations. The study aimed to analyze the effect of Mauli banana stem extract (EMBS) to increase the number of macrophage and neovascular cells in traumatic ulcer healing. Methods: Rattus norvegicus of male Wistar strain  were used  as model of traumatic ulcer. The left buccal mucous was biopsied, then used the histopathology method to find the number of macrophage and neovascular cells. Results: EMBS gel was effected when administered at a concentration of 37.5% because it significantly increased the number of macrophage and neovascular cells in traumatic ulcer healing on the 3rd day to 5th days. Conclusion:  It can be concluded that EMBS within concentration of 37.5% can accelerate ulcer healing through the increasing  number of macrophage and neovascular cells.
NEW CONCEPT IN DENTOFACIAL ESTHETICS: THE BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ADULT ORTHOPEDIC FACE MASK THERAPY: KONSEP BARU DALAM ESTETIKA DENTOFACIALDENTOFACIAL: ASPEK BIOLOGIS TERAPI TOPENG BEDAH TULANG DEWASA Retno Pudji Rahayu; Haryono Utomo
Dentika: Dental Journal Vol. 15 No. 2 (2010): Dentika Dental Journal
Publisher : TALENTA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (316.378 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/dentika.v15i2.1944

Abstract

Orthopedic face mask has been introduced for more than 100 years ago, however, it is primarily indicated for growingpatients. Its effectiveness in adult patients is still questionable. It is thought that in non growing adults the degree oforthopedic movement is minimal, whether dental movement i s more prominent. In addition, there is still controversial,whether patients’ compliance or the existent skeletal growth determines the treatment success. The objective of this studywas to propose a new concept for adult orthopedics face mask therapy ba sed on functional and biological mechanismsinvolved in dentofacial remodeling . Conventional face mask therapy only depended on duration, magnitude andunidirectional elastic forces. In the reviewed case report, the inspiration for a new concept was evolv ed from themultidirectional forces which were resulted from continuous functional movements (i.e. chewing and speaking) duringwearing face mask. These movements may lead to stimulate additional orthopedic or skeletal movements in adult patient.The expla nation of this phenomenon could be explained not only by clinical result, but also with the biologicalmechanism of bone remodeling. In conclusion, regarding to the successful treatment result and its logical biologicalexplanation, this new concept to inc rease the effectiveness of adult orthopedic face mask therapy is likely.
AKTIVITAS EXPRESSI KOLAGEN II DAN OSTEOCALSIN TULANG ALVEOL AKIBAT PRESERVASI SOKET PENCABUTAN GIGI DENGAN CAMPURAN ALOE VERA DAN GRAFT 0,5%: EXPRESSION ACTIVITY OF COLLAGEN II AND OSTEOCALCYN ALVEOLAR BONE QONSEQUENT PRESERVATION POST EXTRACTION SOCKET FILLED WITH A MIXTURE OF ALOE VERA AND GRAFT 0,5% Utari Kresnoadi; Retno Pudji Rahayu; Eha Djulaeha
Dentika: Dental Journal Vol. 18 No. 1 (2014): Dentika Dental Journal
Publisher : TALENTA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (511.98 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/dentika.v18i1.2005

Abstract

Aloe vera adalah tanaman yang mempunyai fungsi antibiotik, anti inflamasi, anti jamur dan bahan yang merupakanbiogenik stimulator untuk merangsang bovine graft agar mempercepat pertumbuhan tulang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahuntuk mengetahui mekanisme aktivitas osteoblas pada proses pembentukan tulang alveol dengan pemberian kombinasiAloe vera dan XCB. Metode penelitian adalah dengan melakukan uji laboratoris dengan hewan coba: 54 ekorcaviacabaya, dibagi menjadi 9 kelompok, masing-masing 6 ekor, terdiri atas 3 group, yang pertama kelompok kontrolyaitu hanya dicabut saja tanpa perlakuan, kelompok 2 adalah kelompok yang setelah gigi dicabut diberi XCB saja dankelompok ke 3 adalah kelompok yang setelah pencabutan diberi campuran Aloe vera dengan XCB pada soket bekaspencabutan gigi. Pemeriksaan dilakukan setelah 14, 30 dan 60 hari. Kemudian diperiksa ekspresi osteocalcin dan kolagentipe II sebagai marker terjadinya tulang alveol dengan pemeriksaan imunohistokimia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkanterdapat perbedaan bermakna ekpresi osteocalcin dan collagen II antara kelompok kontrol dengan kelompok yang diberiAloe vera + XCB pada, 14, 30 dan 60 hari setelah pencabutan. Sebagai kesimpulan, penelitian aktivitas pertumbuhanosteoblas pada tulang alveol ditandai dengan peningkatan ekpresi osteocalcin dan kolagen II.
ANALYSI S ON SECONDARY I NFECTI ON- TRI GGERI NG MICROORGANISMS IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS AS A MODEL FOR POLICY CONTROL Retno Pudji Rahayu; Nasronudin Nasronudin; Retno Indrawati; Prihartini Widiyanti; Bimo Dwi Lukito; Ferdiansyah Ferdiansyah; Siti Qomariyah Khairunisa; Adiana Mutamsari; Tomohiro Kotaki
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol. 5 No. 4 (2015)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (262.927 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v5i4.2016

Abstract

HIV infection is associated with immune-compromised and rising in opportunistic infection (secondary infection). Therefore, the number of mortality caused by HIV/AIDS is increasing. The use of ARV and development of HIV/AIDS management are expected to suppress the progress of HIV infection into AIDS and, therefore, the mortality can be diminished, while in fact most of the patients eventually suffer from AIDS due to secondary infection that commonly causes death. There should be a management by analysing microorganisms that trigger secondary infection. The method of this study was observational descriptive with cross sectional design. HIV infected blood samples were using ELISA Antibody (IgG and IgM) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on laboratory test. The result showed correlation between HIV/AIDS severity and the amount and types of secondary infection. The most common secondary infections were toxoplasm (96.77%), hepatitis C (22.58%), tuberculosis (19.35%), and hepatitis B (3.22%). Other less frequent secondary infections, which were quite difficult to diagnose and not commonly found in Indonesia, were West Nile Virus (25.81%), Japanese Encephalitis Virus (3.22%), and Enterovirus (3.22%). Due to MDGs (Millenium Development Goals) target and the results above, researchers are highly demanded to contribute in decreasing mortality related to AIDS through early detection of secondary infection,including type of infection which have not been commonly found in Indonesia, such as West Nile Virus and Nipah Virus. The discovery of secondary infection in this study was not enough to suppress the occurrence of infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Antimicrobes and good nutrition are required. Moreover, there should be either a primary or secondary prophylaxis to prevent secondary infection that raises the number of mortality and morbidity of HIV/AIDS patients. The result of this study was to meet the target of MDGs by establishing new policies in handling HIV/AIDS infections and have potential as model for policy control in HIV/AIDS.
THE EFFECTIVITY OF SCAFFOLD FROM ANADARA GRANOSA SHELL-STICHOPUS HERMANNI ON BLOOD VESSEL COUNTS AFTER TOOTH EXTRACTION Rima Parwati Sari; Chaterina Dyah Nanik Kusumawardani; Retno Pudji Rahayu; Sri Agoes Soedjarwo; Dian Widya Damaiyanti
ODONTO : Dental Journal Vol 8, No 2 (2021): December 2021
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.30659/odj.8.2.11-17

Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Alveolar bone resorption can occur after tooth extraction. One source of bone scaffold material is hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (HA-TCP). The shell of Anadara granosa can be synthesized to be HA-TCP. Hyaluronic acid, which is widely contained in Stichopus hermanni, can stimulate endothelial progenitor cells for the healing process. Purpose: This research aims to prove the Effectivity of scaffold from Anadara granosa shell-Stichopus hermanni on blood vessel counts after tooth extraction. Methods: The sample in this study was male Wistar rats divided into four study groups randomly. Each group consists of 6 rats. Extraction was carried out on the mandibular first incisor, then was given gelatin as a placebo in the control group, treatment groups given scaffold from Anadara granosa shells (AG), and scaffold combination from Anadara granosa shells-Stichopus hermanni with concentrations of 0.4%-0.8%. (AGSH1-AGSH2). Development of HA-TCP synthesized from Anadara granosa combined with Stichopus hermanni extract for biomedical scaffolds using the freeze-dried method. Observations were made three days after tooth extraction. Data analysis has used one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD (p<0.05). Results: The results of the ANOVA test followed by the HSD-Tukey test showed a significant difference between C (7.33±1.51) and AGSH1 (11.50±1.38), AGSH2 (21.17±1.94), AG (9.33±1.63) and AGSH1 with AGSH2, but between AG and, AGSH1 no significant differences.Conclusions: Combination scaffold from Anadara granosa shell and Stichopus hermanni 0.8% effectively increased blood vessel counts after tooth extraction.
Analisis heteroplasmy DNA mitokondria pulpa gigi pada identifikasi personal forensik (Heteroplasmy analysis of dental pulp mitochondrial DNA in forensic personal identification) Ardyni Febri K; Retno Pudji Rahayu; Agung Sosiawan
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol. 46 No. 3 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://fkg.unair.ac.id/en

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (419.813 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i3.p130-134

Abstract

Background: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis of the hypervariable control region has been shown to be an effective tool for personal identification. The high copy and maternal mode of inheritance make mtDNA analysis particularly useful when old samples or degradation of biological samples prohibits the detection of nuclear DNA analysis. Dental pulp is covered with hard tissue such as dentin and enamel. It is highly capable of protecting the DNA and thus is extremely useful. One of the diasadvantages of mitochondrial DNA is heteroplasmy. Heteroplasmy is the presence of a mixture of more than one type of an organellar genome within a cell or individual. It can lead to ambiguity in forensic personal identification. Due to that, the evidence of heteroplasmy in dental pulp is needed. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the heteroplasmy occurance of mitocondrial DNA in dental pulp. Methods: Blood and teeth samples were taken from 6 persons, each samples was extracted with DNAzol. DNA samples were amplified with PCR and sequencing to analyze the nucleotide sequences polymorphism of the hypervariable region 1 in mtDNA and compared with revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). results: The dental pulp and blood nucleotide sequence of hypervariable region 1 mitochondrial DNA showed polymorphism when compared with rCRS and heteroplasmy when compared between dental pulp with blood. Conclusion: The study showed that heteroplasmy was found in mithocondrial DNA from dental pulp.latar belakang: Analisis sekuens DNA mitokondria (mtDNA) regio kontrol hypervariable telah terbukti menjadi alat efektif untuk identifikasi personal. Kopi DNA yang banyak dan pewarisan maternal membuat analisis mtDNA sangat berguna ketika sampel lama atau sampel biologis yang terdegradasi menghambat deteksi analisis DNA inti. Pulpa gigi terlindung jaringan keras seperti dentin dan enamel. Hal ini membuat pulpa mampu melindungi DNA dan dengan demikian sangat berguna untuk identifikasi. Salah satu kekurangan DNA mitokondria adalah heteroplasmy. Heteroplasmy adalah adanya campuran lebih dari satu jenis genom dalam sel atau individua. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan ambiguitas pada identifikasi pribadi forensik. Oleh sebab itu, identifikasi personal menggunakan pulpa gigi harus memperhatikan kejadian heteroplasmy. tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti kejadian heteroplamy DNA mitokondria pada pulpa gigi. Metode: Sampel darah dan gigi diambil dari 6 orang, masing-masing sampel diekstraksi dengan metode DNAzol. Sampel DNA diamplifikasi dengan PCR dan sequencing untuk menganalisis polimorfisme urutan nukleotida di hypervariable region 1 mtDNA dan dibandingkan dengan revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). hasil: Sekuens nukleotida pulpa gigi dan darah daerah pada hypervariable region 1 DNA mitokondria menunjukkan polimorfisme bila dibandingkan dengan rCRS dan heteroplasmy bila dibandingkan antara pulpa gigi dengan darah. Simpulan: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa heteroplasmy dapat ditemukan pada DNA mitokrondia pulpa gigi.
Efek ekstrak buah delima (Punica Granatum L) terhadap ekspresi wild p53 pada sel ganas rongga mulut mencit strain swiss webster Sri Hernawati; Fedik Abdul Rantam; I Ketut Sudiana; Retno Pudji Rahayu
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol. 46 No. 3 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://fkg.unair.ac.id/en

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (445.509 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i3.p148-151

Abstract

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cancer in the oral cavity. DNA tests showed that almost 90% of cases revealed wild p53 gene mutations. Wild p53 gene mutations cause p53 inactivation so the cell cycle does not stop in G1 phase but continues to S phase and G2 and M, it makes the mutated DNA remains multiplied and apoptosis does not occur. One candidate of the cancer treatment alternatives is pomegranate extract (Punica granatum L – PGL). Purpose: The purpose of study was to examine the effect of PGL on wild p53 expression in oral cavity malignant cell of swiss webster strain mice. Methods: Thirty- two swiss webster strain mice (Balb/c) 5 months old were randomly divided into four groups. Two control groups (K0: no benzopirene exposed and untreated; K1: benzopirene exposed and untreated); and 2 treatment groups (P1: benzopirene exposed and given EA; P2: benzopirene exposed and given PGL extract). The expression of wild p53 was determined by immunohistochemical techniques. Results: The results showed that administration of PGL could increase the expression of wild p53 in malignant epithelial cells in the oral mucosa of mice, and the expression was higher than EA. Conclusion: This study suggested that the PGL extract could express wild p53 in the oral cavity malignant cells of swiss Webster strains mice.Latar belakang: Karsinoma sel skuamosa merupakan kanker yang sering terjadi pada rongga mulut. Pemeriksaan DNA menunjukkan hampir 90% kasus dijumpai adanya mutasi gen wild p53. Mutasi gen wild p53 menyebabkan inaktivasi wild p53 sehingga siklus sel tidak berhenti pada fase G1 tetapi berlanjut ke fase S dan G2 dan M, sehingga DNA yang mengalami mutasi tetap dilipatgandakan dan apoptosis tidak terjadi. Salah satu kandidat obat kanker adalah ekstrak buah delima (Punica Granatum L - PGL). Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti efek ekstrak PGL terhadap ekspresi wild p53 pada sel ganas rongga mulut mencit strain swiss webster. Metode: Tiga puluh dua ekor mencit (Balb/c) strain swiss webster jantan berumur 5 bulan dibagi secara random menjadi 4 kelompok, yaitu 2 kelompok kontrol (K0: tidak dipapar benzopirene dan tidak diberi perlakuan; K1: dipapar benzopirene dan tidak diberi perlakuan); serta 2 kelompok perlakuan (P1: dipapar benzopirene dan diberi EA; P2: dipapar benzopirene dan diberi ekstrak PGL). Pemeriksaan ekspresi wild p53 dilakukan dengan teknik  imunohistokimia. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak PGL dapat meningkatkan ekspresi wild p53 pada sel epitel ganas pada mukosa rongga mulut mencit, dan lebih tinggi dibanding dengan pemberian EA. Simpulan: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak PGL dapat meningkatkan ekspresi wild p53 pada sel ganas rongga mulut mencit strain swiss webster