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Model Penerapan Syariah dalam Negara Modern (Studi Kasus Arab Saudi, Iran, Turki, dan Indonesia) Fauzan, Pepen Irpan; Fata, Ahmad Khoirul
Al-Manahij: Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam Vol 12 No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah IAIN Purwokerto

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1054.985 KB) | DOI: 10.24090/mnh.v12i1.1328

Abstract

Modernization of politics in islamic world causes hard dynamics in the relation betwen religion (sharī’ah) with state or politics. This paper tries to discuss the historical background of that discussion, and tries to show the models of sharī ’ah implementation in the context of modern state. The result of this study is that there are three models of sharī ’ah implementation in modern Islamic world: integration betwen religion (Islam) and state as in Saudi Arabia and Islamic Republic of Iran. In this model sharī ah formally becomes the positive law. The second model is secular state. In this model religion (and sharī’ah) separated from the state. The best example for this model is Republic of Turkey. And the last is symbiosis-intersectional model as Republic of Indonesia. This model is the middle position betwen both of them. The difference of the models are caused by the diversity of socio-historical-economic-political background of these states.
TAREKAT Fata, Ahmad Khoirul
Al-Ulum Vol 11, No 2 (2011): Al-Ulum
Publisher : Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Sultan Amai Gorontalo

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Abstract

Tarekat sebagai organized sufism hadir sebagai institusi penyedia layanan praktis dan terstruktur untuk memandu tahapan-tahapan perjalanan mistik yang berpusat pada relasi guru murid; otoritas sang guru yang telah mendaki tahapan-tahapan mistik harus harus diterima secara keseluruhan oleh sang murid. Ini diperlukan agar langkah murid untuk bertemu dengan Tuhan dapat terlaksana dengan sukses. Tarekat telah dikenal di dunia Islam terutama di abad ke 12/13 M (6/7 H) dengan hadirnya tarekat Qadiriyah yang didasarkan pada sang pendiri Abd Qadir al-Jailani (1077-1166 M). Setelah melewati tahapan-tahapan dalam tarekat, seorang anggota akan mendapat ijazah dari guru untuk dapat mengajarkan ajaran tarekat kepada orang lain. Adapun aspek silsilah, kebanyakan tarekat mengaitkan silsilah mereka kepada Rasulullah SAW melalui sahabat Ali bin Abi Thalib, kecuali Naqsyabandi  yang melalui Abu Bakar Siddiq. ---------------------Sufism as an organized institution service provider presents a practical and structured to guide the stages of mystical journey that centers on student-teacher relationships; authority of the teacher who had climbed the stages of mystical must be completely accepted by a student. This is necessary in order to move students to meet with God can be completely successful. Congregations have been known in the Islamic world, especially in the second century AD 12/13 (6/7 H) with the presence of the congregation Qadiriyah under the founder Abd al-Qadir al-Jailani (1077-1166 AD). After passing through the stages in the congregation, a member will receive a diploma of teaching; one can conduct a congregation and teach others. Genealogically, most congregations linking their lineages to the Prophet Muhammad through Ali ibn Abi Talib, except of the Naqshbandi who through Abu Bakr Siddiq.
MENYOAL KONTEKSTUALISASI HUKUM ISLAM TENTANG POLIGAMI Fata, Ahmad Khoirul; Mustofa, Mustofa
Al-Ulum Vol 13, No 2 (2013): Al-Ulum
Publisher : Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Sultan Amai Gorontalo

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Abstract

Tulisan ini mengemukakan gagasan pembaharuan. Salah satu gugatan terjadi atas hukum-hukum Islam yang terkait dengan keluarga, khususnya poligami, karena dinilai tidak sesuai lagi dengan perubahan zaman yang mengharuskan kesetaraan laki-laki dengan wanita. Untuk menjawab itu, beberapa pihak mengajukan gagasan pembaharuan hukum Islam dengan dua epistemologi utama: penafsiran kontekstual atas nas-nas agama dan asas kemaslahatan. Dengan penafsiran kontekstual atas nas tentang poligami lahirlah kesimpulan bahwa poligami sesungguhnya bukan misi utama Islam. Misi utama Islam tentang pernikahan adalah monogami. Adanya teks-teks yang seolah-olah mengizinkan poligami tidak lain hanyalah sebentuk strategi Islam untuk menghilangkan poligami secara gradual. Namun kontekstualisasi hukum poligami masih menyisakan ruang kritik dimana kajian atas konteks itu masih belum obyektif dan cenderung menjustifikasi wacana dominan tentang relasi gender. ---------------------------This paper proposes an idea of revitalization. This idea is based on by looking at the lawsuits occurred within the Islamic laws related to family, especially poligamy. This is proposed because polygamy is believed no longer relevant with the changing times which now requires equality of between man and woman. To address this problem, some ideas put forward to reform and re-interpretate some Islamic laws which lays into two major epistemologies: first, contextual interpretation over the texts which are the basis of the implementation of poligamy which in turn was not the core mission of Islam. Meanwhile, it is believed that the fundamental goal of marriage in Islam monogamous. The justification of poligamy by putting forward the texts do not eliminate but gradually endorse the practices of polygamy itself. Therefore, there is still a room to critique the context of polygamy by contextualizing the polygamy laws in which most previous studies were not objective and tend to justify the dominant discoureses on gender relation.
Pembaharuan hukum Islam dan problem otentisitas agama Fata, Ahmad Khoirul
IJTIHAD Jurnal Wacana Hukum Islam dan Kemanusiaan Vol 13, No 2 (2013): IJTIHAD Jurnal Wacana Hukum Islam dan Kemanusiaan
Publisher : Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Negeri Salatiga

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Abstract

Islam is a universal religion. Its validity beyond the boundaries of pace and time, have challenges while confronted to modernity. New issues emerged make legal problems that must be faced by Islam, in this case fiqh, are becoming increasingly complex and require answers that are not easy. Many attempts were made contemporary muslim intellectual response to the challenge. In general, the effort was focused on two of epistemology: contextual interpretation and emphasis on the principle of maslahah. Practically, both the offer did generate a lot of laws in accordance with the present conditions. But apparently, both contain serious problems if not addressed promptly can undermine the foundations of religion that threatens the authenticity of Islam as a religion of revelation
Menguak Islam Eksklusif yang Toleran Fata, Ahmad Khoirul
ISLAMICA: Jurnal Studi Keislaman Vol 6, No 1 (2011): Islamica
Publisher : Program Pascasarjana UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (78.74 KB) | DOI: 10.15642/islamica.2011.6.1.14-24

Abstract

This paper speaks of something unusual. Exlusive Islam has been commonly branded as untolerant, while the inclusive Islam has been identified as tolerant. This paper tries to prove the reverse that the exclusive Islam can be tolerant too. It addresses first the problem of religion-based conflict in Indonesia arguing it is this problem that provoked the birth of such liberal font of Islam called Jaringan Islam Liberal (JIL). Born to propagate the polite Islam, the movement turned out to be just another defect within the Muslim society. The fact is that, majority of Muslims in the country are not happy with it. The reaction of Muslims varied, and culminated in the issuance of the Indonesian Council of Ulama (Majelis Ulama Indonesia/ MUI) that such notion as religious pluralism that the movement is busy campaigning for is forbidden religiously. This paper is an attempt to reconstruct the pluralistic discourse in a way that would not iritate the conservative segment of Muslim society. It also tries to understand why majority of Muslims in this country rejected the idea of religious pluralism propounded by the liberals.
PEMIKIRAN TEOLOGIS KAUM SALAFÃŽ: Studi atas Pemikiran Kalam Ibn Taymiyah Washil, Izzuddin; Fata, Ahmad Khoirul
ULUL ALBAB Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 19, No 2 (2018): Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism
Publisher : Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (599.426 KB) | DOI: 10.18860/ua.v19i2.5548

Abstract

In the field of kalam (Islamic theology), some major themes, like attributes of Allah, will of Allah and human freedom, or Quran as words of Allah, have become debate topics between thought schools of kalam in Islam. Because of the complexity of those topics, the debate becomes eternal, without an agreed end. Among those thought schools of kalam in Islam involved in the debate is salaf school, held by Ibn Taymiyah. In his opinion, the school is the right one because it quite conforms to Quran and sunna. By way of thought (manhaj) of salaf school, Ibn Taymiyah also takes part in explaining those major themes in his works. In the case of the will of Allah and human freedom, for example, he doesn’t agree with the Qadarite school’s thought and the Jabarite school’s thought although in this he hasn’t yet stretched out a convincing explanation. This essay will analyze the way of thought (manhaj) of salaf school and Ibn Taymiyah’s opinion about those major themes, especially in his book Majmû‘ al-Fatâwâ.
ZAKAT AND TAX; FROM THE SYNERGY TO OPTIMIZATION Fata, Khoirul; Mustofa, Mustofa
Al-Ulum Vol 15, No 1 (2015): Al-Ulum
Publisher : Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Sultan Amai Gorontalo

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Abstract

Dualism dilemma between zakat and tax in Indonesia can be relatively mitigated by ratification of Act No. No. 38/1999 on Management of Zakat. In the regulation, zakat has been synergized with tax by placing zakat as a deduction from taxable income element (PKP). But so far it has not been given the significant impact on the acceptance of zakat and awareness of Muslims to pay zakat. There are also some problems in practical level that contribute to that fact. This article explores the zakat and tax synergy that have been achieved through Act No. 38 of 1999, the problems found in its execution, and of course an offer for a solution to optimize the role of zakat and tax for the people welfare. By examining same practice in some countries, this paper recommends zakat as a direct tax deduction (tax credit) as a strategic step in the effort to optimize the role of zakat.-----Dilema dualisme zakat dan pajak di Indonesia relatif bisa diredakan melalui pengesahan Undang-undang No No 38/1999 tentang Pengelolaan Zakat. Dalam  peraturan itu zakat telah disinergikan dengan pajak dengan menempatkan zakat sebagai unsur pengurang Penghasilan Kena Pajak (PKP). Namun sejauh ini ketentuan itu belum memberi pengaruh yang signifikan bagi penerimaan zakat maupun kesadaran umat Islam untuk membayar zakat. Selain itu juga terdapat problem di tingkat praktis yang turut berperan bagi kenyataan itu. Tulisan ini mencoba membahas sinergi yang telah tercapai melalui UU No 38 tahun 1999, problem-problem yang ditemukan dalam pelaksanaannya, dan tentu saja tawaran bagi solusi optimalisasi peran zakat dan pajak bagi kesejahteraan rakyat.  Dengan mengkaji praktik di beberapa negara, tulisan ini merekomendasikan zakat sebagai pengurang pajak secara langsung (tax credit)  sebagai langkah strategis dalam upaya optimalisasi peran zakat.
Pertarungan Kuasa dalam Wacana Islam Nusantara Ahmad Khoirul Fata; Moh. Nor Ichwan
Islamica: Jurnal Studi Keislaman Vol. 11 No. 2 (2017): Maret
Publisher : Postgraduate Studies of Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (600.8 KB) | DOI: 10.15642/islamica.2017.11.2.339-364

Abstract

This article examines power struggle in the discourse of Islam Nusantara which becomes very popular in contemporary Indonesian Islam. The idea of Islam Nusantara is not different from Islam in general, but with distinctive charactericstics, such as tawâzun, i‘tidâl, and tawassut}. The proponents of this idea claim that their intellectual framework is based on the principle of maslah}ah mursalah, istih}sân, and ‘urf. Using critical discourse analysis, this article attempts to see the other side of Islam Nusantara discourse. This study is based on an assumption that language and discourse are not only an instrument to convey ideas, but also a means to construct social reality. Social activities are always related to and constructed by their social settings. This article argues that the discourse of Islam Nusantara emerges as a part of struggle for influence between mainstream Islamic movements, such as Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah, and new transnational Islamic movements, such as Tarbiyah, Hizbut Tahrir, and Salafis. The use of the term Islam Nusantara is indeed the effort of mainstream Islamic movements to create the image of indigenous Islamic movements, different from the newly imported Islamic movements. However, the discourse of Islam Nusantara seems to be reductionist and monolithic in perceiving diverse realities of Islam in Nusantara.
Positivisasi Syariah di Indonesia, Legalisasi atau Birokratisasi? Pepen Irpan Fauzan; Ahmad Khoirul Fata
Jurnal Konstitusi Vol 15, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (406.945 KB) | DOI: 10.31078/jk1537

Abstract

Tulisan ini mengkaji pemberlakuan hukum syariah sebagai bagian dari hukum nasional Indonesia. Ada dua permasalahan pokok yang dibahas: pertama, bagaimanakah posisi hukum Islam dalam tubuh hukum nasional? Kedua, apakah legalisasi syariah telah mencerminkan idealitas hukum syariah bagi masyarakat Islam Indonesia? Untuk membahas dua permasalahan ini, penulis memfokuskan pada UU tentang Zakat, wakaf dan haji. Dari kajian yang penulis lakukan, dapat disimpulkan beberapa hal: pertama, keberadaan UU terkait zakat, wakaf dan haji merupakan perwujudan penerimaan sistem hukum Indonesia terhadap pemberlakuan hukum Islam sebagai bagian integral dari hukum nasional. Kedua, meski telah masuk dalam sistem hukum nasional, namun UU tentang zakat, wakaf dan haji mempunyai kekuatan dan kelemahan. Kekuatannya terletak bahwa hukum Islam telah menjadi hukum positif, sehingga pemberlakuannya menjadi mutlak di tengah masyarakat. Kelemahannya, UU itu lebih menitikberatkan pada persoalan administratif, dari pada mandatory. Konsekuensinya, UU tersebut tidak lebih dari sekedar birokratisasi-syari’ah.This paper examines the implementation of sharia as part of Indonesian national law. There are two main issues that are discussed: first, what is the position of Islamic law in the body of national law? Second, does the legalization of sharia reflect the ideal of shariah for Indonesian Islamic society? To discuss the two issues, the authors focus on the Law on Zakat, wakaf and hajj. From the writer's study, it can be concluded: First, the existence of the zakat, wakaf and hajj laws is the embodiment of acceptance of Indonesian legal system towards the implementation of Islamic law as an integral part of national law. Second, although it has been included in the national legal system, the Law of zakat, wakaf and hajj has strengths and weaknesses. Its strength lies in that Islamic law which has become a positive law, so its enforcement becomes absolute in society. The weakness is that the Law focuses on administrative matters rather than mandatory. Consequently, the law is nothing more than a shari'ah-bureaucratization.
Positivisasi Syariah di Indonesia, Legalisasi atau Birokratisasi? Fata, Ahmad Khoirul; Fauzan, Pepen Irpan
Jurnal Konstitusi Vol 15, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (406.945 KB) | DOI: 10.31078/jk1537

Abstract

Tulisan ini mengkaji pemberlakuan hukum syariah sebagai bagian dari hukum nasional Indonesia. Ada dua permasalahan pokok yang dibahas: pertama, bagaimanakah posisi hukum Islam dalam tubuh hukum nasional? Kedua, apakah legalisasi syariah telah mencerminkan idealitas hukum syariah bagi masyarakat Islam Indonesia? Untuk membahas dua permasalahan ini, penulis memfokuskan pada UU tentang Zakat, wakaf dan haji. Dari kajian yang penulis lakukan, dapat disimpulkan beberapa hal: pertama, keberadaan UU terkait zakat, wakaf dan haji merupakan perwujudan penerimaan sistem hukum Indonesia terhadap pemberlakuan hukum Islam sebagai bagian integral dari hukum nasional. Kedua, meski telah masuk dalam sistem hukum nasional, namun UU tentang zakat, wakaf dan haji mempunyai kekuatan dan kelemahan. Kekuatannya terletak bahwa hukum Islam telah menjadi hukum positif, sehingga pemberlakuannya menjadi mutlak di tengah masyarakat. Kelemahannya, UU itu lebih menitikberatkan pada persoalan administratif, dari pada mandatory. Konsekuensinya, UU tersebut tidak lebih dari sekedar birokratisasi-syari’ah.This paper examines the implementation of sharia as part of Indonesian national law. There are two main issues that are discussed: first, what is the position of Islamic law in the body of national law? Second, does the legalization of sharia reflect the ideal of shariah for Indonesian Islamic society? To discuss the two issues, the authors focus on the Law on Zakat, wakaf and hajj. From the writer's study, it can be concluded: First, the existence of the zakat, wakaf and hajj laws is the embodiment of acceptance of Indonesian legal system towards the implementation of Islamic law as an integral part of national law. Second, although it has been included in the national legal system, the Law of zakat, wakaf and hajj has strengths and weaknesses. Its strength lies in that Islamic law which has become a positive law, so its enforcement becomes absolute in society. The weakness is that the Law focuses on administrative matters rather than mandatory. Consequently, the law is nothing more than a shari'ah-bureaucratization.