Adi Kusumaningrum
Fakultas Hukum Universitas Brawijaya

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The ASEAN Political-Security Community: Asean Security Cooperation on Combating Transnational Crimes and Transboundary Challenges Kusumaningrum, Adi
Indonesian Journal of International Law Vol 11, No 1 (2013): Transnational Organized Crime
Publisher : Faculty of Law, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3189.267 KB) | DOI: 10.17304/ijil.vol11.1.268

Abstract

The Asean Security Community (ASC) is a framework to facilitate political and security cooperation in ASEAN. The ASC is a framework based on the idea of comprehensive security with the strategic thrusts of conflict prevention, peaceful conflict resolution, and post-conflict peace building. A framework of this nature represents one of the ultimate goals of ASEAN, which has achieved a record of political cooperation since its inauguration. All nations of Southeast Asia except Timor Leste are now members of ASEAN. There are any ASEAN’s Security Challenges, such as old and new insurgencies - southern Philippines, southern Thailand, Myanmar, West Papua, political uncertainty and instability - Myanmar, Thailand, inter-state disputes and tensions - Thai-Cambodia border, South China Sea conflict, power shift and great power rivalry - China/US, China-India, China-Japan, and transnational/non- traditional security threats – terrorism, transboundary haze, maritime piracy, pandemics, transnational crime, drug trafficking, people smuggling, natural disasters). This paper disscuss abaut security cooperation in ASEAN and some achievements of ASEAN as regional organization on combating transnational crimes and transboundary challenges. Komunitas Keamanan ASEAN (ASC) merupakan sebuah pedoman untuk memfasilitasi kerjasama di bidang politik dan keamanan di ASEAN. ASC merupakan pedoman yang didasarkan pada ide keamanan menyeluruh dengan cara penceghan konflik, penyelesaian kondlik secara menyeluruh, dan upaya damai pasca konflik. Pedoman jenis ini merepresentasikan salah satu tujuan tertinggi ASEAN, yaitu untuk mencapai kerjasama politik semenjak pembentukannya, Semua negara-negara Asia Tenggara kecuali Timor Leste merupakan anggota-anggota ASEAN. Meskipun begitu dilansir dari media berita nasional terkini , terdapat tantangan keamanan yang dimiliki oleh ASEAN, misalnya pemberontakan lama dan baru – Filipina Selatan, Thailand Selatan, Myanmar, Papua Barat, ketidakpastian dan ketidakstabilan politik – Myanmar, Thailand, sengketa-sengketa dan tekanan antar negara-negara anggota – Perbatasan Thailand-Kamboja, konflik Laut Cina Selatan, pergantian kekuasaan dan persaingan kekuasaan– Cina/Amerika Serikat, Cina-India, Cina-Jepang, dan ancaman-ancaman keamanan – terorisme, ketidakjelasan perbatasan, pembajakan di laut, wabah pandemic, kejahatan-kejahatan transnasional, penyelundupan obat-obatan terlarang, penyelundupan manusia, bencana alam. Tulisan ini akan membahas mengenai kerja sama keamanan di ASEAN dan beberapa keberhasilan yang telah diraih ASEAN sebagai organisasi regional dalam memberantas kejahatan-kejahatan transnasional dan tantangan antar perbatasan.
THE CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL AIR LAW PRINCIPLES IN GLOBALIZATION ERA Kusumaningrum, Adi
Brawijaya Law Journal Vol 4, No 2 (2017): Law and Sustainable Development
Publisher : Faculty of Law, Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (360.651 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.blj.2017.004.02.07

Abstract

The concept of state’s sovereignty had become one of debatable issues within the international law studies during the 20th century. International air transport has always been one of the most regulated of industries of globalization. Therefore, airspace sovereignty no escape from the challenges of globalization. This regulatory system has been changing recently because of worldwide initiative that have paved the way for enhancing air transport liberalization. This is why numerous models have been hypothesized for a new (multilateral) aviation order to supersede bilateralism, which still remains the primary vehicle for liberalizing international air transport service for most states. This study intends to discuss about the basic principles of international airspace law that frequently facing challenges in the globalization era. In the last few decades is that the economic aspects of airspace sovereignty have dominated change, or the lack thereof, in the international air sovereignty regime. In addition, there are many challanges in politic and law. In the context of Indonesia airspace challanges, in the near future, it is needed to revitalize the function of the strong regulation. This can be started by re-evaluating the regulations that is continued by the arrangement of the anatomy of the setting that is comprehensive, systematic, careful, effective and also efficient based on two importance that are prosperity and security.
PENGATURAN SAFEGUARDS SEKTOR ANGKUTAN UDARA ASEAN DI ERA LIBERALISASI JASA Kusumaningrum, Adi
Jurnal Bina Mulia Hukum Vol 1, No 2 (2017): Jurnal Bina Mulia Hukum
Publisher : Fakultas Hukum Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

AbstrakASEAN Single Aviation Market (ASAM) telah dilaksanakan sejak 2015, dalam rangka mewujudkan ASEAN open sky policy. Meskipun demikian, masih terjadi situasi dan kondisi yang berbeda dalam penyediaan jasa angkutan udara antar negara-negara anggota ASEAN. Hal inilah yang menimbulkan sikap skeptis sebagian pihak akan keberhasilan ASAM, terutama bagi Indonesia. Market share penumpang yang didapatkan Indonesia sampai saat ini masih tertinggal dari sebagian besar negara ASEAN lainnya, bahkan kondisi tersebut makin memburuk tiap tahunnya. Bukan tidak mungkin, suatu saat ke depan industri penerbangan internasional Indonesia mengalami injury. Artikel ini akan memaparkan hasil analisa bagaimana bentuk perlindungan (safeguard) terhadap industri penerbangan nasional, yang terdapat dalam instrumen-instrumen hukum internasional di ASEAN. Pada dasarnya, safeguard adalah katup pengaman yang memungkinkan pemerintah untuk melindungi industri dalam negeri jika terjadi ‘injury’ karena peningkatan persaingan internasional yang dihasilkan dari komitmen liberalisasi. Lebih jauh, ASEAN hendaknya mengatur lebih lanjut jenis perlindungan dalam rangka memfasilitasi penyesuaian terhadap industri domestik jasa angkutan udara. Kata Kunci: angkutan udara, ASEAN, jasa, liberalisasi, safeguard. AbstractASEAN Single Aviation Market (ASAM) have been implemented since 2015, in order to achieve the ASEAN Open sky policy. Nevertheless, it is still going on different situation and conditions (asymmetric playing field) in the provision of air transport services between the Member States of ASEAN. This raises some skepticism of the benefit of ASAM, especially for Indonesia. Market share of passenger number for Indonesia is still left behind from the majority of ASEAN Countries. This condition, even worsening every year. It is not impossible if the international aviation industry of Indonesia will suffer injury. This article will present safeguard form for national aviation industry according to international legal instrument in ASEAN. Essentially, safeguards are safety valves that allow governments to temporarily protect the domestic industry if it is injured by increased international competition resulting from liberalization commitments. Furthermore, ASEAN should define the provision on conducting domestic industrial adjustment of air transport services.Keywords: air transport, ASEAN, liberalisation, safeguard, services.DOI :  https://doi.org/10.23920/jbmh.v1n2.18 
REPOSISI POLITIK HUKUM PERJANJIAN INTERNASIONAL DALAM RANGKA MEWUJUDKAN TERTIB HUKUM DI INDONESIA Puspitawati, Dhiana; Kusumaningrum, Adi
Jurnal Media Hukum Vol 22, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Fakultas Hukum Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/jmh.2015.0060.258-273

Abstract

In Indonesia, here is no exact politic and legal system regarding the application of International Treaty within national legal system. Article 11 of Indonesian Constitution 1945 merely envisages the division of authority between President and Parliament in ratifying international treaty, however, such article does not state clearly Indonesia’s legal politics concerning the application of international treaty within national legal system. The lack of clarification on Indonesia’s legal and political system in such area raises problems in the application of international treaty domestically. This research is aimed to:  (1) analyses Indonesia’s legal politic concerning the application of international treaty towards Indonesian Constitution 1945 as well as other legal instruments; (2) analyses legal implications of international treaty upon Indonesia’s national interests and; (3) propose concept on legal politic regarding the application of international treaty in Indonesia. Since legal politic is crucial in supporting which law should be implemented towards state’s national goal, it is important to clarify Indonesia’s legal politic concerning the implementation of international treaty. As stated by Hans Kelsen, that as the application of the rule of law, a state should eliminate existing inconsistency and overlaps of its laws.
Improving Indonesia's Commitment to Open Government Through Online Petition Kusumaningrum, Adi; Bachtiar, Rizqi; Listiningrum, Prischa
Indonesian Journal of International Law
Publisher : UI Scholars Hub

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Abstract

Since 2011 Indonesia has joined as a member of Open Government Partnership, which is an international platform for countries committed to making their government more open, accountable, and responsive to citizens. However, the implementation of open government in Indonesia is criticized by some researchers because of the simplification of meaning. Open government is often described as uploading all government information into the official government website.Therefore, alternative policies are needed to ensure the openness of the government. This study offers the idea of ​​creating an online petition system officially administered by the House of Representatives as an alternative forum. The petition system offered is different from the conventional online petition system, because the conventional system does not have clear legal umbrella and is managed by Non-Governmental Organizations. By comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the addition of the authority to the Parliament, it is expected that the system will strengthen the oversight function by the Parliament. Nevertheless, the alternative solution offered in this study is highly dependent on the political will of the government and the House of Representatives in making clear and legal rules.
THE LEGAL ANALYSIS OF “TEORI KEDAULATAN NUSANTARA” TOWARDS THE NEW CONCEPTION OF INDONESIA AIRSPACE SOVEREIGNTY Kusumaningrum, Adi
Indonesian Journal of International Law
Publisher : UI Scholars Hub

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Abstract

Art. 1 Chicago Convention of 1944 confirms that every state has a complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory. This arrangement gives the highest role of state in controlling air transportation based on state sovereignty principles. The concept of airspace sovereignty faced challenges with the introduction of international air transportation liberalization through deregulation provisions. Such liberalization policy is later known as ‘open sky policy’. Such open sky policy includes the establishment of single market such as Single European Sky dan ASEAN Single Aviation Market. The liberalization led to a situation where sovereignty concept has been regarded from a different perspective. It is widely argued that the smooth operation of new forms of international cooperation requires a more flexible perception of sovereignty. This study wants to analyze the concept of Indonesia airspace sovereignty. A theory of Indonesia airspace sovereignty that ever born is the "Teori Kedaulatan Nusantara" by Priyatna Abdurrasyid in the 1970s. "Teori Kedaulatan Nusantara" based on two doctrines i.e. the doctrine of necessity and doctrine of right of self-preservation that is the core of military/security aspect. In the other hand, what has become clear in the last few decades is that the economic aspects of airspace sovereignty have dominated change. This paper argues that there is a continuing trend away from the absolute airspace sovereignty regime towards something less. It is submitted that preservation theory cannot be sustained in the Indonesia airspace sovereignty doctrine. This paper asserts that the new paradigm of international air transport drives Indonesia towards the release of some aspects of Indonesia’s airspace sovereignty doctrine.
THE ASEAN POLITICAL-SECURITY COMMUNITY: ASEAN SECURITY COOPERATION ON COMBATING TRANSNATIONAL CRIMES AND TRANSBOUNDARY CHALLENGES Kusumaningrum, Adi
Indonesian Journal of International Law
Publisher : UI Scholars Hub

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3207.126 KB)

Abstract

The Asean Security Community (ASC) is a framework to facilitate political and security cooperation in ASEAN. The ASC is a framework based on the idea of comprehensive security with the strategic thrusts of conflict prevention, peaceful conflict resolution, and post-conflict peace building. A framework of this nature represents one of the ultimate goals of ASEAN, which has achieved a record of political cooperation since its inauguration. All nations of Southeast Asia except Timor Leste are now members of ASEAN. There are any ASEAN’s Security Challenges, such as old and new insurgencies - southern Philippines, southern Thailand, Myanmar, West Papua, political uncertainty and instability - Myanmar, Thailand, inter-state disputes and tensions - Thai-Cambodia border, South China Sea conflict, power shift and great power rivalry - China/US, China-India, China-Japan, and transnational/non- traditional security threats – terrorism, transboundary haze, maritime piracy, pandemics, transnational crime, drug trafficking, people smuggling, natural disasters). This paper disscuss abaut security cooperation in ASEAN and some achievements of ASEAN as regional organization on combating transnational crimes and transboundary challenges.
Kontruksi Hukum Kebijakan Pembiayaan Infrastruktur Milik Negara Melalui Skema Non-APBN Untuk Mewujudkan Ketahanan Ekonomi Nasional Karsayuda, M. Rifqinizamy; Fadli, Moh; Kusumaningrum, Adi; Nurjannah, Nurjannah
De Jure: Jurnal Hukum dan Syari'ah Vol 13, No 2 (2021)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18860/j-fsh.v13i2.14533

Abstract

Abstract:Indonesia needs a huge investment in infrastructure. Of the total funding needs for strategic infrastructure from year 2019 to 2024, it is projected that the country is only able to provide less than half. Hence, Indonesia needs to seek another source to finance its infrastructure. This research aims to review and provide input to the government on the construction of state-owned infrastructure financing policies to realize national economic resilience. Through legal construction methods using a statutory approach, a conceptual approach, and a multidisciplinary approach. The results of this study show that the right state-owned infrastructure financing model to realize national economic resilience is with the Non-APBN scheme, which is a cooperation between the government and all stakeholders. The infrastructure development is supported by the VfM (Value for Money) method, with a new financing scheme in the form of participation of the entire community through the issuance of securities by the sharia-based government. The development of infrastructure with the Non-State Budget scheme will maintain the country's financial stability and reduce the burden of dependence on foreign debt.Keywords: Infrastructure, Financing, Non-APBNAbstrak:Indonesia membutuhkan investasi Infrastuktur yang sangat besar. Dari total pendanaan ivestasi strategis infrastruktur untuk kurun waktu 2019 sampai dengan. 2024, pemerintah hanya mampu menyediakan pendanaan kurang dari separuhnya saja. Pemerintah perlu mencari alternatif sumber pendanaan lain guna mendanai kebutuhan infrastrukturnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dan memberikan masukan kepada pemerintah terhadap konstruksi kebijakan pembiayaan infrastruktur milik negara untuk mewujudkan ketahanan ekonomi nasional. Melalui metode konstruksi hukum dengan menggunakan pendekatan perundang-undangan, pendekatan konseptual, dan pendekatan multidisipliner. Hasil Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa model pembiayaan infrastruktur milik negara yang tepat untuk mewujudkan ketahanan ekonomi nasional adalah dengan skema Non-APBN, yang merupakan kerjasama antara pemerintah dan seluruh stakeholders. Pembangunan  infrastruktur tersebut didukung dengan metode VfM (Value for Money), dengan skema pembiayaan baru berupa partisipasi seluruh masyarakat melalui penerbitan surat berharga oleh pemerintah yang berbasis syariah. Penerpan pembanguan infrastruktur dengan skema Non-APBN akan menjaga stabilitas keuangan negara dan mengurangi beban ketergantungan terhadap hutang luar negeri.Kata Kunci: Infrastruktur, Pembiayaan, Non-APBN