ROEDHY POERWANTO
Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jln. Raya Dramaga Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia 16680

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A Review of Root Pruning to Regulate Citrus Growth Budiarto, Rahmat; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Santosa, Edi; Efendi, Darda
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 6 No 01 (2019): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (462.852 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jtcs.6.01.1-7

Abstract

Root is the important plant organ hiding below the soil that serves as plant supporting structure, water and nutrient supplier and assimilates storage. Root growth occurs in turn with shoot part, forming repeated cyclic pattern because of the photosynthate competition. Root growth regulation is one of the promising practices to boost the yield of fruit tree, especially citrus that is economically important and highly demanded fruit. Root pruning varied based on the scale of intensity and plant growth stage, including air root pruning, knife root pruning and modern pruning using root pruner machine mounted to a tractor. Root pruning to induce the growth of more fi brous root system and to correct root deformation at seedling stage have potentials to improve post-transplant growth. Besides, it has a potential to replace the use of chemical plant growth regulator for a more environmentally friendly practice. The pruning of root impeded the canopy growth, altered the plant water status leading to fl ower promotion. In addition, it is also a promising practice to overcome the alternate bearing on fruit tree, including citrus, through the suppressing of excessive growth and restricting the high fruit load during the ‘on year’ and allowing a better carbohydrate storage for the improvement of yield during the ‘off year’.
Penggunaan Jenis Entris, Posisi Sambungan, dan Posisi Penyisipan Entris pada Batang Bawah terhadap Keberhasilan Penyambungan dan Pemacuan Pertumbuhan Bibit Manggis Anwarudinsyah, Jawal Muhammad; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sutrisno, Nono; Purnama, T; Fatria, D
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 20, No 4 (2010): Desember 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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Abstract

ABSTRAK. Bibit manggis yang dihasilkan melalui teknik sambung pucuk berbuah lebih cepat dengan habitus tanamanrendah, sehingga akan mudah dikelola. Populasi tanaman persatuan luas lebih banyak karena jarak tanam yang rapat.Namun, pertumbuhan bibit yang dihasilkan dengan teknik tersebut sangat lambat dengan arah pertumbuhan yangmenyamping, sehingga bentuk kanopinya tidak menarik. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh jenis entris, posisisambungan, dan posisi penyisipan entris pada batang bawah terhadap keberhasilan sambung pucuk dan pemacuanpertumbuhan bibit manggis. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Pembibitan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah TropikaSolok mulai bulan Juli 2003 sampai dengan Maret 2005. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah acak kelompokfaktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama ialah jenis entris yang terdiri atas entris tengah dan samping. Faktorkedua ialah posisi sambungan, yaitu penyambungan pada bagian batang bawah yang masih sukulen dan pada bagianyang sudah berkayu. Faktor ketiga ialah penyisipan entris, yaitu entris disisipkan pada bagian yang lebar dan bagianyang sempit dari batang bawah. Setiap unit perlakuan terdiri atas lima tanaman. Peubah yang diamati meliputikeberhasilan penyambungan, frekuensi pecah tunas, jumlah daun, tinggi tanaman, diamater batang, jumlah cabanglateral, dan persentase bibit sambung yang tumbuh menyamping. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tunas tengahdan samping dapat digunakan sebagai entris dengan tingkat keberhasilan penyambungan dan pertumbuhan bibitsambung yang relatif sama (79-80%). Posisi penyambungan yang terbaik adalah pada ruas batang bawah yang berkayu.Penyisipan entris pada bagian yang lebar atau bagian sempit dari ruas batang bawah tidak banyak memengaruhitingkat keberhasilan penyambungan dan pertumbuhan bibit sambung manggis.ABSTRACT. Jawal, M. Anwarudin Syah, R. Poerwanto, N. Sutrisno, T. Purnama, and D. Fatria. 2010. TheEffect of Scion Type, Grafting Position, and Scion Insertion Position on the success of Rootstock Grafting andthe Growth of Grafted Mangosteen. The objective of this study was to determine the best scion type, grafting, andscion insertion position on rootstock on grafted mangosteen. This study was conducted at the Nursery of IndonesianTropical Fruit Research Institute Solok from July 2003 to March 2005 by using a factorial randomized block designwith three replications. The first factor was the scion types (autotroph and plagiotroph), the second factor was thegrafting position (in suculent and wooden tissues), and the third one was the scion insertion position on rootstock i.e.scion was inserted on the wide and narrow parts of rootstock. The observed variable were grafting successfulness,the frequency of flush, leaf number, plant height, stem diameter, and the number of lateral branch. The results of theexperiment indicated that autotroph and plagiotroph scions can be used for mangosteen grafting. Best position forgrafting was wooden part of rootstock. Inserting scion on the wide and narrow parts of rootstock did not affect thegrafting growth successfulness.
Korelasi Konsentrasi Hara Nitrogen Daun dengan Sifat Kimia Tanah dan Produksi Manggis Liferdi, Lukman; Poerwanto, Roedhy
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 21, No 1 (2011): Maret 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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Abstract

Analisis daun dapat digunakan sebagai pedoman dalam mendiagnosis status hara  dan rekomendasi pupuk pada tanaman manggis. Namun demikian, standar teknik pengambilan contoh daun harus ditentukan secara akurat. Umur daun merupakan faktor utama dalam menentukan status hara tanaman buah. Daun yang tepat dijadikan contoh yaitu pada saat konsentrasi hara mempunyai korelasi terbaik dengan pertumbuhan dan hasil. Daun yang mempunyai korelasi terbaik tersebut digunakan dalam uji kalibrasi. Konsentrasi hara mineral pada daun diamati pada tiga sentra perkebunan manggis, yaitu Kabupaten Bogor, Tasikmalaya, dan Purwakarta. Dua puluh pohon manggis dewasa yang relatif seragam dari masing-masing kebun diambil daunnya setiap bulan dan dianalisis untuk mengetahui konsentrasi hara N-nya. Contoh daun diambil mulai daun berumur 2 bulan setelah trubus dan seterusnya secara periodik hingga umur 10 bulan. Pengamatan produksi meliputi jumlah bunga yang mekar, jumlah bunga yang rontok, serta jumlah dan bobot  buah per pohon. Kualitas buah dilihat dari konsentrasi N, P, dan K dari masing-masing bagian buah dan padatan terlarut total. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi hara nitrogen pada daun berkurang dengan bertambahnya umur. Konsentrasi N daun manggis asal Purwakarta lebih tinggi daripada Tasikmalaya dan Bogor serta berkorelasi positif dengan hara N tanah dan hasil. Korelasi konsentrasi N dari beberapa umur daun dengan hasil yang paling baik yaitu daun umur 5 bulan dengan koefisien korelasi di atas 0,7. Oleh karena itu, umur daun yang tepat sebagai alat diagnosis hara N untuk tanaman manggis yaitu 5 bulan. Hasil penelitian ini dapat digunakan sebagai pedoman dalam menyusun rekomendasi pemupukan untuk tanaman manggis.Leaf analysis can be used as a guide to diagnose nutritional status and as a fertilizer recommendation tool for mangosteen tree. Therefore, the sampling technique of standard leaf has to be established. Leave age was the main important factor to estimate fruits plant nutrient status. The best leaf sampling was the one which has the best correlation between leaf nutrients concentration with growth and yield as well. This leaf will be used in the calibration test. Leaf nutrient concentration was investigated in three mangosteen production areas i.e. Bogor, Tasikmalaya, and Purwakarta. To analyze N concentration of  twenty uniform and representative mangosteen trees, leaves were taken monthly. The results showed that concentration of N on the leaves decreased  following the increase of leaf age. Mangosteen leaves from Purwakarta contained more N than those from Tasikmalaya and Bogor. Fifth months leaf age was the best one to be used as a leaf sample to diagnose N nutritional status which coefficient correlation more than 0.7, because it had the best correlation among concentration of N in leaf with soil nitrogen nutrient and production.  This research results were used as a guide to estimate fertilizer recommendations for mangosteen.
Genetic Diversity and The Relationship Between The Indonesian Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) and The Related Species Using Isozyme Markers Sinaga, Soaloon; Sobir, Sobir; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Aswidinnoor, Hajrial; Duryadi, Dedy
Jurnal Natur Indonesia Vol 13, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Universitas Riau

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (97.331 KB) | DOI: 10.31258/jnat.13.1.53-58

Abstract

Indonesia was known to have high diversity of mangosteens (Garcinia mangostana) and the related species. Inorder to elucidate the genetics variability of the diversity, thirty three accessions were examined by using isozymeanalysis. The genetic diversity and relationships among several mangosteens and other Garcinia sp wereestablished by using four isozymes. The level of polymorphism as revealed by isoenzyme was 88%. Althoughmangosteen is believed to reproduce exclusively through apomixis, our result show that considerable geneticdiversity exists within G. mangostana and between other Garcinia species. Based on 27 bands there were 5-42%dissimilarity level among mangosteen accessions, while the other species has 75% dissimilarity. The dendrogramis built based on isozyme marker analysis to separate clusters of mangosteen and other Garcinia sp. The datashowed that G. mangostana is a close relative of G. malaccensis, G. porrecta, G. celebica, and G. hombroniana. Theconcurrence analysis on isozyme analysis result showed the very good fit of Rolf correlation value (0.914). Thisresult indicated that isozymes could group G.mangostana and the related species.
The Analysis of β-cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin using HPLC in the Accumulation of Orange Color on Lowland Citrus Sumiasih, Inanpi Hidayati; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda; Agusta, Andria; Yuliani, Sri
International Journal of Applied Biology Vol 1, No 2 (2017): International Journal of Applied Biology
Publisher : Hasanuddin University

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Abstract

Citrus peel color is one of the main quality attributes which was caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and its derivatives, especially β-citraurine. It makes citrus peel color looks attractive (orange). The orange color is a mixture of β-cryptoxanthin with β-citraurin. The objectives of this study were (1) to observe the effect of precooling and duration of proper ethylene exposure in the formation of orange color on citrus peel, (2) to identify and determine the β-cryptoxanthin content and total chlorophyll on citrus peel. Citrus was from Tuban, East Java while the study was conducted at PKHT IPB and LIPI. Precooling and without precooling treatment prior to injection of 100 ppm of ethylene exposed at 15 °C, duration of exposure control (0), 24, and 48 hours. The results show that the best color of the Citrus Color Index (CCI) is the precooling treatment and the duration of ethylene exposure for 24 hours, which can reduce total chlorophyll content about 8 times and proved to increase β-cryptoxanthin pigment content five times in accelerating the formation of orange citrus reticulata peel color to bright orange. Degreening has no significant effect on total dissolved solids and the firmness level of citrus fruits.Keyword: β-cryptoxhantin; citrus; chlorophyll; degreening; ethylene zeaxanthin.
The Potentials of Limau (Citrus amblycarpa Hassk. Ochse) as A Functional Food and Ornamental Mini Tree Based on Metabolomic and Morphological Approaches Budiarto, Rahmat; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Santosa, Edi; Efendi, Darda
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 4 No 2 (2017): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (440.628 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jtcs.4.2.49-57

Abstract

Limau (Citrus amblycarpa (Hassk.) Ochse) is one of the native Citrus species of West Java that is grown in the local backyard, thus is easily found in local cuisines. Limau has great potentials for use as a potted plant in home gardens for its aesthetic value and fragrance. The objective of this research was to describe the metabolites fingerprint and morphology of Limau as a potential functional and ornamental mini tree. Methanol leaf extracts from one-year-old Limau originated from Bogor were analyzed using untargeted Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Methanol leaf extract was dominated by vitamin E and composed of other 18 metabolites including phytosterols, fatty acids and terpenes. The major portion of fruit extract consisted of 6-octadecenoic acid, palmitate and various fragrance compounds such as alpha sinensal, alpha limonene, beta citronellal, citronellol, and sabinene. Limau fruits are also a functional food due to its rich antioxidant and aromatic content in the fruits. The morphology of limau tree is suitable as a potted ornamentals or mini-fruits tree for its small crown, sparse branching with unifoliate aromatic leaves and small spines, and plentiful aromatics mini fruits with the diameter of around 2-4 cm.  
Production, Post-Harvest and Marketing of Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix DC) In Tulungagung, Indonesia Budiarto, Rahmat; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Santosa, Edi; Efendi, Darda; Agusta, Andria
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 6 No 02 (2019): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (719.259 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jtcs.6.02.138-143

Abstract

Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) is one of the Citrus species that is popular as food spices in Indonesia. This study was aimed at describing the production system, post-harvest handling, marketing and evaluating the product variation of kaffir lime cultivated in the Tulungagung district, East Java Province, Indonesia. Data was collected through a survey by interviewing kaffir lime farmers, distributors and customers in June 2018. Kaffir lime is cultivated by local farmers using traditional and conventional agriculture practices. The farmer used good quality seedlings as planting materials and applies animal manure or compost to the trees. Kaffir lime is grown on rain-fed land; fertilizers and pesticides are applied sparingly. The kaffir lime leaves could be harvested twice a year in different seasons. Better leaf quality can be obtained during the rainy seasons. The leaf production per tree is estimated at about 100 gram per plant per season. Post-harvest handling involved sorting, packing and marketing without any cooling treatment. The standard gate price of kaffir lime leaf in June 2019 was IDR 6,000-7,000, IDR 9,000-10,000 at the collector level, IDR 11,000-12,000 at wholesaler, and IDR 14,000-16,000 at small retailers. Leaves were distributed to traditional market in Tulungagung, neighbouring districts such as Kediri, Trenggalek and Blitar, and also to capital cities such Jakarta. The main product of kaffir lime is the fresh leaf for food seasoning and as a raw material to produce essential oil and dry leaf powder. The stems have been used for fuel in home industries. The fruits of kaffir lime are rarely found in the market and have great potentials for essential oil production and recently, a promising commodity for export.
Study of Incubation Duration After Degreening and Storage Methods on the Quality of Tangerine "Garut" (Citrus reticulata B.) Tiara, Dede; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 6 No 03 (2019): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (358.35 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jtcs.6.03.193-200

Abstract

Ripened citrus fruits with an orange rind have a higher market demand relative to unripen citrus with a green rind. This research was aimed to evaluate the combination of post-degreening incubation duration before storage with the type of storage to increase orange rind color and storage life of citrus fruit. A randomized block design with two factors was used; the first factor was post-degreening incubation duration before storage that comprised of without incubation, incubation for two and four days. The second factor was storage method that comprised of storage at room temperature (29 ± 1oC), at 18 ± 1oC, waxing and storage at room temperature, waxing and storage at 18 ± 1oC. The result shows that post-degreening incubation duration that increased orange color of citrus rind was four days. The citrus which was stored at 18 ± 1oC had the smallest fruit weight loss. The best treatment combination which increased orange color formation and had lower percentage of fruit weight loss was a combination of 4 days incubation after degreening and storage at 18± 1oC.
Sensory Evaluation of the Quality of Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) Leaves Exposed to Different Postharvest Treatments Budiarto, Rahmat; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Santosa, Edi; Efedi, Darda; Agusta, Andria
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 8 No 02 (2021): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29244/jtcs.8.02.71-79

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the sensory attributes such as aroma, color and texture of kaffir lime leaves in response to various post-harvest treatment. The hedonic test approach was conducted by inviting 70 untrained panelists on seven post-harvest treatments, i.e. (D1) post-sortation fresh leaves, (D2) pre-sortation fresh leaves, (D3) cold-storage leaves, (D4) low temperature-storage leaves, (D5) brown dry leaves, (D6) fresh leaf-flour, and (D7) brown dry leaf-flour. The result showed that most of panelist agreed that aroma was the most important quality attribute that determined the level of preference in kaffir lime leaf products. Among seven tested products, the aroma, color, texture and overall impression of D1 was the most favorite one, while D4, D5, and D7 were assessed as low preference products. This work showed the importance of sortation and cold storage to maintain consumer likeliness. The criteria for sortation were green, clean, pest-disease free, scar free, high uniformity and fresh condition of leaves. Cold-storage at -20oC maintained the color and texture of kaffir lime leaves better than low temperature storage (5oC). To make leaf flour, the use of fresh green leaves was significantly better than brown dry ones. This finding might become the baseline data for the development of kaffir lime leaf product in the future.
Land Suitability Criteria for Intensively Managed Cavendish Banana Crop in Way Kambas East Lampung, Indonesia Ansyori, .; Sudarsono, .; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Darmawan, .
JOURNAL OF TROPICAL SOILS Vol 15, No 2: May 2010
Publisher : UNIVERSITY OF LAMPUNG

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5400/jts.2010.v15i2.159-167

Abstract

Land Suitability Criteria for Intensively Managed  Cavendish Banana Crop in Way Kambas East Lampung, Indonesia (Ansyori, Sudarsono, R Poerwanto, and Darmawan): Banana as one of the pre-eminent products of horticultural crop has a very important role in the growth of agricultural sector.  The research aimed to study the land characteristics which influence the Cavendish banana crop yield and proposing the land suitability classification criteria for the land utilization type of Cavendish banana crop with intensive management which has been tested based on the production rate in the field.  For this purpose, there were 36 observation land units specifically designed by considering factors such as soil subgroups, slopes, land utilization types, and land productivity levels.  At each observation land unit, the land utilization types and land characteristics were indentified.  The relation between land characteristics and production was tested with correlation and regression analysis.  The results of some statistical tests were contrasted and then selected as the basis to develop the land suitability classification criteria for Cavendish banana crop which was intensively managed.  The research findings indicated that the banana crop yield levels were significantly influenced and determined by the land characteristics of soil bulk density, cation exchange capacity, soil permeability, total porosity, exchangeable sodium percentage, soil textural class, and soil erodibility.