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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS ON ARABICA COFFEE (Coffea arabica) Ibrahim, Meynarti Sari Dewi; Hartati, Rr. Sri; Rubiyo, Rubiyo; Purwito, Agus; Sudarsono, Sudarsono
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 14, No 2 (2013): October 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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Propagation of Coffea arabica L. through direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis technique is promising for producing large number of coffee seedlings. The objectives of the research were to evaluate methods for direct and indirect somatic embryo-genesis induction of C. arabica var. Kartika. The explants were the youngest fully expanded leaves of arabica coffee. The evalu-ated medium was modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with a combination of 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; 4.52 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Both calli (100 mg) and pre-embryos developed from the edge of leaf explants were subcultured into regeneration medium (half strength MS with modified vitamin, supplemented with kinetine 9.30 µM and adenine sulfate 40 mg L-1). The results showed coffee leaf explant cultured on medium containing 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induce direct somatic embriogenesis from explant, while that of 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induced indirect somatic embrio-genesis. The medium for calli induction from coffee by explants was medium supplemented with 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D in combination with 9.08 µM thidiazuron. On the other hand, the best medium for activation of induction of somatic embryos was MS medium supplemented with 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Based on this results, the first step for developing micropropagation for coffee has been resolved. The subsequent studies will be directed to evaluate agronomic performance of the derived planting materials.
Construction of Begomovirus AV1 Gene Candidate into pBI121 and Its Introduction into Tobacco by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens Vector Santoso, Tri J.; Herman, Muhammad; Hidayat, Sri H.; Aswidinnoor, Hajrial; ., Sudarsono
Jurnal AgroBiogen Vol 7, No 1 (2011): Jurnal AgroBiogen
Publisher : Jurnal AgroBiogen

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Infection of Begomovirus has caused leaf curl disease in tomato. This infection has significantly impact on yield losses of tomato production. Recently, in Indonesia there was no effectively way to control this disease.  The use of resistant tomato variety is one of strategies to control this virus. Genetic engineering technology gives an opportunity to develop the transgenic tomato resistant to Begomovirus through pathogen derived resistance (PDR) approach. The objectives of this study were to construct the  Begomovirus AV1 candidate gene in the pBI121 and to introduce the construct into tobacco plant genome through Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector. A series activites in gene construct have been conducted include PCR amplification of AV1 gene using a pair of specific primer, cloning the gene into pGEM-T easy, transformation of the clone into Escherichia coli DH5α competent cell, construct the gene into pBI121, and transform the construct into A. tumefaciens. Leaf segments of in vitro tobacco plant were transformed by co-cultivation with A. tumefaciens containing ToLCV-AV1 construct. In the research activitiy, Indonesian  Begomovirus  AV1 gene  was  successfully amplified and inserted in expression vector plasmid pBI121. Tobacco transformants carrying kanamycin-resistant gene (nptII gene) were regenerated and established in the glasshouse. Those transformant plants are expected containing the AV1 gene.
Delivering of Over-Expression Construct OsWRKY76 Candidate Gene in Rice cv. Nipponbare through Agrobacterium tumefaciens Apriana, Aniversari; Sisharmini, Atmitri; Enggarini, Wening; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Khumaida, Nurul; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan R.
Jurnal AgroBiogen Vol 7, No 1 (2011): Jurnal AgroBiogen
Publisher : Jurnal AgroBiogen

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Plant genetic improvement can be done through classical breeding or genetic engineering. WRKY is a transcription factor involved in regulating plant defense responses. OsWRKY76 gene is located in a narrow segment of chromosome 9 which is identified previously to be related to wide spectrum resistance in rice. A sequence of OsWRKY76 (+1.200 bp) has available in the gene bank and it makes possible to isolate, clone, and construct the gene into over-expression vector. The aim of this research was to assemble an over-expression construct of OsWRKY76 candidate gene and introduce it into rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A construct of pCAMBIA-1301::35S::OsWRKY76 has been successfully assembled and transformed into embryogenic calli of rice cv. Nipponbare using A. tumefaciens strain Agl-1 and EHA 105. A number of 126 independent lines has been produced, in which Agl-1 showed 3.8 times more efficient than EHA 105. PCR analysis of randomly selected 25 independent lines showed that all of them positively contained hptII gene, a selectable marker used in the over-expression construct of the OsWRKY76 candidate gene. Based on the result, it could be concluded that the over-expression construct of OsWRKY76 candidate gene have been successfully introduced into the tissue of Nipponbare.
TOLERANSI TEMBAKAU TRANSGENIK YANG MENGEKSPRESIKAN GEN P5CS TERHADAP STRES KEKERINGAN Riduan, Ahmad; Aswidinnoor, Hajrial; , Sudarsono; Santoso, Djoko; , Endrizal
Jurnal Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian Vol 13, No 2 (2010): Juli 2010
Publisher : Jurnal Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian

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Tolerance of Transgenic Tobacco Expressing P5CS Gene Against Drought Stress. Drought is majorosmotic stress that dramatically limit plant growth and productivity. Proline accumulation has been correlatedwith tolerance to drought stress in plants. Therefore, overproduction of proline in plants may lead to increasedtolerance against these abiotic stresses. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of droughtstress at the period of 15 – 90 days after planting (DAP) on growth of T1 plants derived from transgenic GStobacco, to evaluate their tolerance against drought stress, and to determine their leaf proline content. One groupof the tobacco plants were grown in plastic pots and subjected to stress condition during the period of 15 – 90DAP. The other group was grown optimally in plastic pot up to harvest period. All tobacco plants were harvestedat 91 DAP. Leaf proline content was determined at 63 DAP (after six periods of stress). The results indicatedreduced plant height, shoot diameter, leaf number, leaf dry weight and leaf area of all tobacco plants. Stresssensitivity index calculated using leaf dry weight character grouped T1 plants derived from P5CS transgenicGS tobacco into tolerance, medium tolerance and sensitive against drought stress while that of non-transgenicGS tobacco were only medium tolerance and sensitive against drought stress. Higher leaf proline content underdrought stress was observed in all T1 plants derived from P5CS transgenic tobacco than that of non-transgenicGS tobacco. These data demonstrated that proline accumulation as an osmoprotectant and that over-expressionP5CS gene results in the increased tolerance to osmotic stress in T1 plants derived from P5CS transgenic tobacco.Key words: Proline biosynthesis, proline accumulation, sensitivity index, biomass yield Stres kekeringan merupakan masalah utama stres osmotik yang dapat menjadi faktor pembataspertumbuhan dan produktivitas tanaman. Akumulasi prolina berkorelasi dengan tingkat toleransi tanamanterhadap stres kekeringan. Oleh karena itu over-produksi prolina diduga dapat meningkatkan toleransi tanamanterhadap stres kekeringan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1) untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh stres kekeringanmelalui pengurangan air terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman TI zuriat dari tembakau GS transgenik P5CSgenerasi TO, (2) menganalisis akumulasi prolina daun tanaman TI zurlat dari tembakau GS transgenik P5CSgenerasi TO kondisi stres dan non-stres, serta (3) menganalisis hubungan antara akumulasi prolina daun padakondisi stres kekeringan dengan pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman. Percobaan dua faktor (tembakau transgenikstres kekeringan) disusun dengan rancangan acak kelompok. Sebagian tanaman yang diuji disiram setiap hari hingga mencapai kondisi kapasitas lapang dari awal tanam sampai dengan 90 HST dan digunakan sebagaiperlakuan non-stres. Sedangkan kelompok tanaman yang lain dipelihara dalam kondisi kapasitas lapanghingga 14 HST dan diberi perlakuan stres kekeringan dari umur 15 HST hingga panen (90 HST). Kandunganprolina diukur pada umur 63 HST (setelah 6x periode stres). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semua tanamantembakau yang diuji mempunyai tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, jumlah, berat kering dan luas daun yanglebih rendah akibat perlakuan stres kekeringan yang diberikan dibandingkan dengan kondisi non-stres.Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan indeks sensitivitas terhadap stres kekeringan menggunakan peubah bobotdaun kering per tanaman maka tanaman TI zurlat dari tembakau GS transgenik P5CS generasi TO yang diujibersegregasi untuk kategori toleran, medium toleran dan peka, sedangkan tembakau GS non-transgenikdikategorikan sebagai medium toleran dan peka terhadap stres kekeringan. Tanaman TI zurlat dari tembakau GStransgenik P5CS generasi TO menunjukkan kandungan prolina yang lebih tinggi dalam kondisi stres kekeringandibandingkan dengan tembakau GS non-transgenik. Peningkatan akumulasi prolina yang cukup tinggi akibatover-ekspresi dari gen P5CS diduga berkorelasi dengan peningkatan toleransi tanaman terhadap stres kekeringan.Kata kunci : Biosintesis prolina, akumulasi prolina, indeks sensitivitas terhadap stres, produksi biomasa
Pengaruh Komposisi Media terhadap Pembentukan Kalus Embriogenesis Somatik Kopi Arabika ( Coffea arabica ) Ibrahim, Meynarti Sari dewi; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Rubiyo, Rubiyo; Syafaruddin, Syafaruddin
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Vol 3, No 1 (2012): Buletin Riset Tanaman Rempah Dan Aneka Tanaman Industri
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Induksi embrio somatik pada kopi arabika (Coffea arabica) dengan menggunakan beberapa zat pengatur tumbuh (ZPT) telah berhasil dilakukan. Pengaruh komposisi media terutama kombinasi antara jenis ZPT yang berbeda dan tanggap genotipe tanaman dilaporkan sangat bervariasi. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengkaji pengaruh pemberian 2,4-D dan kinetin dalam proses pembentukan dan pertumbuhan kalus embriogenik asal daun. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan (Puslitbangbun) Agustus 2011 sampai Januari 2012. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah daun dari kopi arabika varietas Sigarar Utang yang merupakan tanaman koleksi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (Balittri). Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 5 ulangan, masing-masing ulangan terdiri dari 5 eksplan. Peubah yang diamati, meliputi persentasi kalus yang terbentuk, morfologi kalus, berat basah kalus, dan jumlah globular. Hasil menunjukkan semua perlakuan dapat membentuk kalus, pertambahan berat eksplan tertinggi diperoleh pada media kombinasi 2,4-D 1 mg/l atau 2 mg/l dan kinetin 1 sampai 4 mg/l. Embrio somatik terbanyak diperoleh pada media yang diberi 2,4-D 0,5 mg/l dan kinetin 1 mg/l. Selain kalus, massa proembrio dan embrio, juga terbentuk akar adventif yang jumlahnya tidak nyata antar perlakuan.  The Effect of Composition Media to Callus Formation of Somaticembryogenesis of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica)ABSTRACT Induction of somatic embryos with plant growth regulators (PGR) has successfully performed in arabica coffee. However, the influence of media composition combined with different PGR, explants and genotype of plants is widely various in response yields. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2,4-D and kinetine in process of formation and growth of embryogenic callus developed from leaves of arabica coffee. The studiy was carried out at a laboratory of Indonesian Research Center for Estate Crops (Puslitbangbun) from August 2011 to January 2012. Plant materials used are coffee leaves var. Sigarar Utang taken from a germplasm collection of the crop grown at Pakuwon Research Station, Indonesian Research Institute for Industry Crops (Balittri) located at Sukabumi, West Java. A completely randomized design with 5 replications and plot size of five explants was used. Parameters observed are percentage of callus formation, morphology of the callus, fresh weight of callus, and number of globular. Results show that all treatments examined are able to form callus. The highest increase in weight of explants was obtained from the media treated with 2,4-D (conc. of 1mg/l or 2 mg/l) and kinetin (conc. of 1 to 4 mg/l). While, the most number of somatic embryo formed was obtained from those of treated with 2,4-D 0.5 mg/l and kinetin 1 mg/l. In addition to callus formation, proembryo mass, embryo and adventive roots were also formed in spite of not significant between different the treatments.
KERAGAMAN FENOTIPE DAN GENETIK TIGA VARIETAS KELAPA GENJAH KOPYOR ASAL PATI JAWA TENGAH MASKROMO, ISMAIL; TENDA, ELSJE T.; TULALO, MEITY A.; NOVARIANTO, HENGKY; SUKMA, DEWI; SUKENDAH, SUKENDAH; SUDARSONO, SUDARSONO
853-8212
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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ABSTRAKKelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati, Jawa Tengah merupakankekayaaan hayati asli Indonesia dengan nilai ekonomi tinggi. Informasikeragaman genetik kelapa kopyor masih terbatas. Data keragamanmorfologi dan genetik diperlukan dalam program pemuliaan kelapakopyor. Penelitian ini mempelajari keragaman tiga varietas kelapa genjahkopyor asal Pati yang telah dilepas berdasarkan karakter morfologi,kuantitas endosperma, dan keragaman alel marka SSR. Penelitiandilakukan di Pati dan di Laboratorium Plant Molecular Biology,Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, IPB. Evaluasi dilakukan terhadaptiga populasi kelapa Genjah kopyor (hijau, coklat, dan kuning) dengan 30tanaman sampel untuk setiap populasi. Rataan data morfologi digunakanuntuk menyusun dendogram. Kuantitas endosperma diamati pada satubuah kelapa kopyor per tanaman yang dievaluasi. Karakteristikendosperma dikelompokkan sesuai kategori yang telah ditetapkan. Untuksetiap populasi, analisis marka dengan lima pasang primer SSR dilakukanpada 10 tanaman sampel. Data yang didapat digunakan untuk menentukankeragaman genetik kelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati. Hasil pengamatanmenunjukkan keragaman morfologis dan alel SSR antar tanaman dalamvarietasnya (keragaman intra-varietas) rendah. Sebaliknya, keragamanmorfologis dan alel SSR antar varietasnya tinggi. Kuantitas endospermakelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati bervariasi antara skor 1–6. Keragamangenetik yang rendah dalam varietas dan tinggi antar ketiga varietas (coklat,hijau, dan kuning) memperkuat pelepasan ketiganya sebagai varietas lokal.Selain itu, keragaman genetik antar tanaman dalam varietas yang rendahmendukung penggunaan ketiga varietas lokal sebagai tetua dalam programperakitan varietas kelapa kopyor unggul baru. Tetua yang dipilih dapatdiseleksi intra-varietas berdasarkan persentase buah kopyor per tandandan skor kuantitas endosperma yang tinggi.Kata kunci: Keragaman morfologis, keragaman intra dan antar varietas,kuantitas endospermaABSTRACTKopyor dwarf coconuts are mutants from Pati, Central Java havinghigh economic values. However, morphological and genetic diversities ofthis coconut were still limited. Morphological and genetic diversity dataare needed for breeding program. The research objectives were to evaluateintra and inter-specific diversity based on morphology, endospermquantity, and SSR alleles. Field evaluations were conducted in Pati whilelaboratory activities were at Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory,Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB. Three populations ofkopyor dwarf varieties (brown, green, and yellow) were evaluated. Thirtytrees were sampled for each population. The average of morphologicaldata were used to construct cluster analysis. Endosperm quantity wasscored (0 – 9) based on a single nut sample. Ten palms were analyzedusing five SSR loci for each population and used to determine geneticdiversity of populations. Results of observations indicated intra-varietymorphological and SSR allele variations among kopyor dwarf was low.However, inter-variety variations were high. The endosperm quantityscores among kopyor dwarf coconut ranged from 1–6. The low intra-variety and high inter-variety variations among the three kopyor dwarfcoconut supported their release as different local varieties. Moreover, thelow intra-variety phenotypic and genotypic diversities among kopyorbrown, green, and yellow dwarf coconut support their use as parents fornew and superior kopyor coconut variety development in the future. Forsuch purpose, however, it is necessary to conduct intra-variety selection toidentify desirable parents based on high kopyor fruit percentage per bunchand for high kopyor endosperm quantity.Key words: Morphological diversity, intra and inter variety diversities,quantity, endosperm
DAYA GABUNG DAN HETEROSIS KARAKTER VEGETATIF, GENERATIF, DAN DAYA HASIL JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L.) MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DIALEL HARTATI, RR. SRI; SUDARSONO, SUDARSONO
853-8212
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ABSTRAKPerakitan varietas unggul memerlukan informasi daya gabung tetua,baik umum maupun khusus. Tetua dengan daya gabung umum (DGU)tinggi berpotensi menghasilkan varietas sintetis atau komposit. Sementaraitu, tetua dengan daya gabung khusus (DGK) tinggi berpotensimenghasilkan varietas hibrida. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui dayagabung tetua jarak pagar yang dapat menghasilkan hibrida atau populasikomposit. Sepuluh tetua, yaitu 1 tetua berdaya hasil rendah, 6 menengah,dan 3 tinggi digunakan dalam persilangan dialel lengkap. Evaluasidilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Balittri Pakuwon Sukabumi, mulaiAgustus 2008 sampai Juli 2011 menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompoktiga ulangan. Karakter yang diamati yaitu tinggi tanaman, lingkar batang,lebar kanopi, umur mulai berbunga, serta jumlah cabang total, cabangproduktif, infloresen, tandan, fruit set, dan buah per tanaman. Analisisdialel menggunakan metode I Griffing. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ratioragam DGU dan DGK lebih besar daripada satu ( DGU / DGK > 1) padasemua karakter yang dievaluasi. Tetua 3012-1 dan PT 15-1, yang berdayahasil tinggi, memiliki DGU tinggi pada karakter umur mulai berbunga,lebar kanopi, serta jumlah cabang total, cabang produktif, infloresen,tandan, dan buah. Tetua PT 33-2, yang berdaya hasil menengah, memilikiDGU tinggi pada karakter umur mulai berbunga, serta jumlah cabang total,cabang produktif, infloresen, dan buah. Sementara itu, tetua 575-3, yangberdaya hasil rendah, memiliki DGU tinggi pada lingkar batang. Tetua PT33-2, 3012-1, dan PT 15-1 berpotensi sebagai penyusun populasi dasaruntuk pembentukan varietas sintetik yang cepat berbunga dan berdayahasil tinggi. Tetua 575-3 berpotensi untuk dirakit sebagai varietas yangmemiliki lingkar batang besar dan berbunga lambat.Kata kunci: daya gabung umum, daya gabung khusus, gen aditif,komposit, Jatropha curcas L.ABSTRACTGeneral Combining Ability (GCA) and Specific Combining Ability(SCA) are important in creating high yielding varieties. A parent havinghigh GCA is appropriate to produce synthetic or composite varieties, whilehigh SCA is to produce hybrid. The research objective is to find out theinformation of parents combining ability in Jatropha curcas L. Researchwas conducted using diallel analysis. Ten genotypes i.e. 1 low yieldingparent, 6 medium, and 3 high were used to generate F1 arrays with fulldiallel analysis. Evaluation was conducted at Indonesian Spice andIndustrial Crops Research Institute Experimental Station, usingRandomized Block Design from August until July 2011. The observationwere plant height, stem girth, canopy width, days to flowering, andnumber of total branches, productive branches, inflorescences, bunches,fruit set percentages; and fruit per plant. Diallel analysis was usingGriffing Model I. Results showed that general variance, each of GCA andSCA ratio, is more than one ( GCA / SCA > 1) in all evaluated characters.High yielding parents of 3012-1 and PT 15-1 exhibited high GCA on daysto flowering, canopy width, and number of total branches, productivebranches, inflorescences, bunches, and fruits. Medium yielding parents ofPT 33-2 exhibited high GCA for days to flowering, number of totalbranches, productive branches, inflorescences, and fruits. Low yieldinggenotype of 575-3 exhibited high on stem girth. PT 33-2, 3012-1, and PT15-1 could be used for developing early flowering and high yieldingvarieties, while 575-3 was suitable for producing big stem girth and lateflowering varieties.Key word: general combining ability, specific combining ability, additivegen, composite, Jatropha curcas L.
PEWARISAN SIFAT HERMAPRODIT DAN KONTRIBUSINYA TERHADAP DAYA HASIL PADA JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L.) HARTATI, RR. SRI; SUDARSONO, SUDARSONO
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ABSTRAKKontribusi sifat hermaprodit terhadap daya hasil tanaman jarakpagar belum banyak diketahui. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui peranbunga hermaprodit terhadap daya hasil dan mekanisme pewarisannya.Penelitian dilakukan terhadap 60 genotipe jarak pagar di Kebun PercobaanBalittri Sukabumi. Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai bulan Mei 2007 sampaidengan Juli 2010. Jarak tanam 2 m x 2 m, menggunakan 2,5 kg pupukkandang + 20 g Urea + 20 g SP 36 + 10 g KCl per tanaman. Penelitianterdiri dari (1) evaluasi tipe bunga jarak pagar dan (2) pewarisan sifathermaprodit dan kontribusinya terhadap daya hasil. Hasil evaluasimenunjukkan bahwa delapan dari 60 genotipe jarak pagar yang dievaluasimerupakan tanaman tri-monoecious yang menghasilkan bunga jantan,bunga betina, dan bunga hermaprodit, 52 lainnya merupakan tanamanmonoecious yang hanya menghasilkan bunga jantan dan bunga betina.Karakter yang dimiliki oleh delapan genotipe tri-monoecious yangdievaluasi adalah lebih lambat berbunga (mulai berbunga pada umur 120-274 hari) dan berdaya hasil rendah sampai sedang (jumlah buah 23-228per tanaman pada tahun pertama). Kemunculan bunga hermaprodit tidakterjadi sepanjang tahun, tetapi lebih dominan pada tanaman berumur enambulan. Persentase bunga hermaprodit berkisar 6,25-53% dari total bungayang dihasilkan. Persentase fruitset pada tandan bunga hermaprodit lebihtinggi dibanding tandan bunga non-hermaprodit, dengan tingkatkeberhasilan rata-rata 80% (kisaran 56-100%). Pada tandan bunga yangtidak menghasilkan bunga hermaprodit, buah jadi rata-rata sebesar 50%(kisaran 11-100%). Daya hasil tanaman jarak pagar ditentukan olehgenetik tetua. Bunga hermaprodit diwariskan oleh tetua betina maupuntetua jantan. Gen pengendali sifat hermaprodit diduga adalah gensederhana yang bersifat dominan.Kata kunci: Jatropha  curcas,  monoecious,  tri-monoecious,  bungahermaprodit, fruit setABSTRACTHermaphrodite character has been reported in physic nut, its roleand contribution to production process especially to the yield has not beeninvestigated. The objectives of this research were to evaluatehermaphrodite flowers contribution on yield and their mechanisminheritance. The evaluation was conducted at the Experimental Station ofBalittri Sukabumi from May 2007 to July 2010. The spacing was 2 m x 2m with 2,5 kg manure + 20 g Urea + 20 g SP 36 + 10 g KCl/plant. Theexperiment consisted of (1) evaluation of flower type of physic nut and(2) hermaphrodite inheritance and their contribution on yield. Results ofthe experiment indicated eight from 60 physic nut genotypes were tri-monoecious which were capable on producing male, female, andhermaphrodite flowers while as the rest (52 genotypes) were monoeciouswhich produced only male and female flowers. The tri-monoecious weregenerally late flowering (120-274 days after planting) and low to mediumyield (producing 23-228 fruits per plant in the first year). Hermaphroditeflowers generally occurred six months after planting at the amount rangedfrom 6,25-53% of total flowers. Fruit set of inflorescences havinghermaphrodite flowers was higher, average of 80% (ranged from 56-100%) than those with female and male flowers, average of 50% (rangedfrom 11-100%). Yield of physic nut was affected by the genetic potentialof their parents rather than hermaphrodite character. Hermaphrodite flowercharacter was inherited by both female and male parents and might becontrolled by simple-dominant gene.Key words: Jatropha curcas, monoecious, tri-monoecious, hermaphroditeflower, fruit set
INBREEDING DEPRESSION PADA PROGENI HASIL PENYERBUKAN SENDIRI DAN OUTBREEDING DEPRESSION PADA HASIL PENYERBUKAN SILANG JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L.) HARTATI, RR. SRI; SUDARSONO, SUDARSONO
853-8212
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ABSTRAKUntuk mengetahui pengaruh inbreeding (ID) dan outbreedingdepression (OD) pada tanaman jarak pagar dilakukan evaluasi populasi S1hasil penyerbukan sendiri dan F1 hasil penyerbukan silang genotipeterpilih. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Balai PenelitianTanaman Industri dan Penyegar mulai Juni 2009-Juli 2010. Evaluasimenggunakan 100 populasi S1 dan F1 yang berasal dari persilangan diallellengkap antar 10 tetua yang terdiri atas 1 tetua berdaya hasil rendah, 6tetua berdaya hasil sedang, dan 3 tetua berdaya hasil tinggi. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan penyerbukan sendiri pada tanaman jarak pagartidak selalu mengakibatkan ID. ID ditemukan pada sebagian karakterprogeni hasil penyerbukan sendiri tetua 1 (575-3), 2 (HS 49-2), 4 (PT 13-1), 5 (SP 16-2), 6 (PT 33-2), 7 (3012-1), 8 (PT 15-1), 9 (PT 14-1), dan 10(Sulsel 8), sedangkan OD ditemukan pada progeni hasil penyerbukansilang tetua 3 (IP 1A-2) dengan tetua lainnya. Penyerbukan sendiri tetua 2(HS 49-2), 6 (PT 33-2), 8 (PT 15-1), dan 9 (PT 14-1) mengakibatkan IDpada karakter umur berbunga dan OD pada karakter jumlah buah pertanaman dan menghasilkan progeni yang lebih cepat berbunga danberbuah  lebih  banyak  dibanding  penyerbukan  silangnya.  ODmengakibatkan penurunan hasil pada F1. Persilangan antar tetua dengandaya hasil berbeda menghasilkan progeni F1 dengan daya hasil lebihrendah dari tetua terbaiknya. Persilangan dengan tetua jantan berdaya hasilrendah menghasilkan progeni F1 yang berdaya hasil lebih rendah dari tetuabetinanya. Penurunan daya hasil pada progeni F1 akibat persilangandengan tetua jantan berdaya hasil rendah berkisar 31-76%.Kata kunci: Jatropha curcas L., populasi S1, populasi F1, penurunanhasilABSTRACTA sets of F1 and S1 arrays were generated to determine the presenceof inbreeding (ID) and outbreeding (OD) effects of physic nut. Researchwas conducted at Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops ResearchInstitute Experimental Station during June 2009 to July 2010. Ten physicnut genotypes i.e. 1 parent with low yield, 6 parents with medium, and 3parents with high yield potential were used to generate one hundred F1 andS1 progenies by full diallel scheme. Results indicated ID only occurred ina several number of genotypes. ID for a number of characters wereobserved among S1 progenies derived from parents number 1 (575-3), 2(HS 49-2), 4 (PT 13-1), 5 (SP 16-2), 6 (PT 33-2), 7 (3012-1), 8 (PT 15-1),9 (PT 14-1), and 10 (Sulsel 8), while OD were observed among F1progenies derived from parent number 3 (IP 1A-2). Selfing of parentsnumber 2 (HS 49-2), 6 (PT 33-2), 8 (PT 15-1), and 9 (PT 14-1) resulted IDfor days to flowering and OD for number of fruit. Selfing of these parentsresulted early flowering and high fruit yielding progenies. OD resultedyield reduction on several F1 progenies. Crossing among parents withdifferent yield level resulted F1 progenies with lower yield than that of thebest parent. Crossing to low yielding male parent resulted F1 progenieshaving lower yield than that of low yielding female parent. Yield reductionamong F1 progenies ranged from 31 to 76%.Key words: Jatropha curcas L., S1 population, F1 population, yieldreduction
Induksi Kalus Embriogenik dan Daya Regenerasi Kopi Arabika Menggunakan 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid dan 6-Benzyladenine Ibrahim, Meynarti Sari Dewi; Hartati, Rr Sri; Rubiyo, Rubiyo; Purwito, Agus; Sudarsono, Sudarsono
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Vol 4, No 2 (2013): Buletin Riset Tanaman Rempah dan Aneka Tanaman Industri
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

Embriogenesis somatik kopi Arabika (Coffea arabica L.) masih mengalami kendala dalam meregenerasikan planlet dari eksplan yang dikulturkan. Kemampuan eksplan daun membentuk embrio dalam proses embriogenesis somatik kopi sangat dipengaruhi oleh komposisi media dan zat pengatur tumbuh. Penelitian bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh pemberian 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid dan 6-Benzyladenine dalam proses pembentukan kalus embriogenik dan daya regenerasi kopi Arabika. Penelitian dilakukan di Unit Pengembangan Benih Unggul Pertanian, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian pada bulan Juli 2011 sampai Desember 2012. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah daun kopi Arabika varietas S795 koleksi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. Rancangan perlakuan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 6 ulangan, masing-masing ulangan terdiri dari 5 eksplan. Induksi kalus menggunakan 5 kombinasi perlakuan 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 0 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 2 mg/l; 2,4-D 2 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; dan kontrol (tanpa penambahan 2,4-D dan BA). Peubah yang diamati meliputi jumlah kalus, persentasi kalus embriogenik, berat basah kalus, dan jumlah proembrio. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 0 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 2 mg/l; dan 2,4-D 2 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l dapat membentuk kalus kecuali perlakuan kontrol. Berat kalus, persentasi kalus embriogenik, dan jumlah proembrio tertinggi diperoleh pada media kombinasi 2,4-D 2 mg/l dan BA 1 mg/l. Kalus yang mampu beregenerasi berasal dari media kombinasi 2,4-D 1 mg/l dan BA 2 mg/l dengan persentasi 16,67% dengan 6 kecambah per 0,2 gram kalus.Kata Kunci: Coffea arabica, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid, 6-Benzyladenine, embriogenesis somatikRegeneration of planlets from cultured explants has been an obstacle in somatic embryogenesis of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.). The ability of leaf explants to generate embryos in somatic embryogenesis process of coffee was affected by composition of media and plant growth regulators. The objectives of the research was to examine the effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid dan 6-Benzyladenine in the process of embryogenic callus and regeneration potential of arabica coffee. The study was conducted at Agricultural Superior Seed Development Unit, Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD) from July 2011 to December 2012. Plant material used was leaves of S795 variety which is collected by Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute. The research was arranged in completely randomized design with 6 replications, each replication consist of 5 explants. Callus induction used 5 treatments, i.e. 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 0 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 2 mg/l; 2,4-D 2 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; and control (without 2,4-D and BA). Variables observed were number of callus, percentage of embryogenic callus, callus fresh weight and number of proembryo. Result showed that all treatments can produce the callus except control. Combination of 2,4-D 2 mg/l and BA 1 mg/l gave the highest of fresh weight of callus, percentage of embryogenic callus, and number of proembryo. Regenerating callus of 16.67% with the number of sprouts of 6 per 0.2 gram only derived from combination of 2,4-D 1 mg/l BA and 2 mg/l. 
Co-Authors , Agustiansyah , Rustikawati , Sukendah , Triadiati , Witjaksono ABDUL RACHMAD BUDIONO Ade Wachjar Adisyahputra Adisyahputra, Adisyahputra Agung Endro Nugroho Agus Purwito Agus Rachmat AHMAD RIDUAN Ahmad Surkati Ali Husni Amarillis, Shandra Amarullah, Muhamad Roffi Andrie Al Kausar Anita Yuliyanti Aniversari Apriana Anneke Pesik Anwar, Aswaldi Aprizal Zainal Arfan Nazhri Simamora Arief Hidayat Aris Munandar Asep Setiawan ASMONO, DWI Atmitri Sisharmini Bambang Heliyanto Bambang S. Purwoko BAMBANG SUGIRI Barahima Abbas C J Soegihardjo Cartealy, Imam Civi Cartealy, Imam Civi Catur Herison Cecep Kusmana Christoph Leuschner Clarry Sada Colleen M. Higgins, Colleen M. Darmawan Saptadi Deka Rotama Dewi Sukma Didiek Hadjar Goenadi Diky Anggoro DINARTY, DINY Dini Dinarty, Dini DINI NURDIANI Diny Dinarti Djoko Santoso DWI ANDREAS SANTOSA Dwi Asmono DWI HAPSORO Dwi Hapsoro Edi Guhardja Efendi, Darda Elina, Juanita ELSJE T. TENDA, ELSJE T. Endang Pudjihartati Endrizal Eneng Fakhrunnisa Enni Suwarsi Rahayu Erick Raynalta, Erick Fajar Laksono Suroso Fakhrunnisa, Eneng Fatsan, Ahmad FETRINA OKTAVIA Germini Alam Giyanto . Gusti Ayu Kade Sutariati H. M.H. Bintoro Djoefrie HAJRIAL ASWIDINNOOR Harsini ,, Harsini Hartati, Raden Roro Sri Haryadi Permana Hasriadi Mat Akin Hengky Novarianto Hengky Novarianto Hidayat Pawitan Hiroshi Ehara Hugo Volkaert, Hugo I MADE ARTIKA IBNUL QAYIM IDA HANARIDA SOMANTRI Iim Fatimah Ika Mariska Ikhsanudin Ikhsanudin Irman Firmansyah Ismail Maskromo Ismail Maskromo Iwa Sutardjo, Iwa Iwan Setiawan JAJAH KOSWARA Juang Gema Kartika Jumanto Jumanto Jumanto Jumanto, Jumanto Khoerul Anwar Khursatul Munibah Kukuh Murtilaksono Kukuh Setiawan Kurniasari, Praharisti Kurniawan R. Trijatmiko Kusumo Nugroho Kuswanhadi Kuswanhadi, Kuswanhadi Laksmita Prima Santi Laksono Trisnantoro Lila Yuwana Lollie Agustina P. Putri M. Herman Marbelisa Briliani Mardikaningsih, Agusti Marenda Ishak S MASKROMO, ISMAIL MEITY A. TULALO, MEITY A. Memen Surahman Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim Muchammad Ali Safaat Muhammad Hasyim Bintoro Muhammad Herman MUHAMMAD HERMAN Muhammad Machmud Muhammad Machmud Mutia Dewi Yuniati Neviana Wahyuni Nihayati, Hanik Endang Niniet Indah Arvitrida Noor Cahaya NOVARIANTO, HENGKY Nur Khayati Nurhajati A. Mattjik Nursalam Nursalam Nurul Khumaida Paulus B.K. Santoso Purwaningsih Purwaningsih Purwoko, Devit purwoko, devit R B Gobel Ralf G. Dietzgen, Ralf G. Reni Indrayanti ROEDHY POERWANTO Rr Sri Hartati Rr Sri Hartati, Rr Sri Rr. Sri Hartati Rubiyo Rubiyo RULLY DYAH PURWATI RUSMILAH SUSENO S. Arsyad S. Ilyas Said Harran Saiful Akhyar Lubis SATRIYAS ILYAS Satriyas Ilyas Satya Nugroho Shinta Hadiyantina Sholeh Avivi Siswanto Siswanto Siti Mufidah Siti Sunarintyas SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO Sri H. Hidayat Sri H. Hidayat Sri H. Hidayat Sri Indarto Sri S. Harjadi Sri Soenarsih DAS Stephanie Wilamarta Sudari, Sudari Sudibyo Martono Sudirman Yahya SUDJINDRO SUDJINDRO Sugiyanta Sukendah S, Sukendah SUKENDAH SUKENDAH, SUKENDAH Sumali Wiryowidagdo Suryo Wiyono Susilo Indrawati Swastika, Maria Syafaruddin Syafaruddin TENDA, ELSJE T. Teuku Tajuddin TINCHE, nFn Tri J. Santoso Tri J. Santoso Tri Joko Santoso Tri Joko Santoso U.S WIRADISASTRA UJANG KHAIRUL Urai Salam Visia Assyafira Suwarto vyta andri setyo utami Wening Enggarini Widiatmaka . Widiatmaka Widiatmaka Widodo Widodo Wiwin Ambarwulan Yudiwanti Wahyu E. K. Yulis Setiya Dewi Yundari, Yundari Yuni Wibowo Yusnita Yusnita